Unit 2A - People and Where They Live Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 2A - People and Where They Live Deck (114):

Definition of birth rate

The number of live births per 1000 people per year


Definition of death rate

The number of deaths per 1000 people per year


Definition of natural increase

When the birth rate exceeds the death rate


Definition of natural decrease

When the death rate exceeds the birth rate


How to calculate the natural change of a population

BR - DR = Change
Births per 1000 people - Deaths per 1000 people = Natural increase/decrease of (blank) per 1000 people


Describe stage 1 of the demographic transition model

High BR
High DR
Population growth is slow
Population is small


Describe stage 2 of the demographic transition model

High BR
DR falls
Better healthcare, food, water
Improved economy
Rapid population growth, population explosion begins


Describe stage 3 of the demographic transition model

Better education
BR starts falling
DR low
Population growth slows


Describe stage 4 of the demographic transition model

BR low
DR low
Population longevity
Population remains high but growth is slow, even decreasing at certain points due to an extremely low BR


Give an example of a country in stage 2 of the demographic transition model



Give an example of a country in stage 3 of the demographic transition model



Give an example of a country in stage 4 of the demographic transition model

UK, etc


What does 'GIS' stand for?

Geographical Information Systems


Give an example of an online geographical information system that compares information

Website NI


Give an example of some of the information presented on the NINIS system

The NINIS stores lots of information about:
Immigration to certain areas
Wealth distribution
Housing distribution


What are the advantages of GIS?

Allows access to a lot of information quickly and easily
It is easy to identify patterns in maps and tables displaying the stored information
Lots of information on one area/location can be found on one site (e.g. NINIS)
The information has already been accumulated and is up to date


Definition of migration

When people move house/location permanently


Definition of migrants

People who move house/location


Definition of immigration

When people move into a country/area


Definition of emmigration

When people leave/exit a country/area


What is GIS?

GIS is a way of storing information about places that makes it easy to compare against other data


What impact does migration have on countries which people leave? Give both positives and negatives

- Population decrease
- Brain drain, often those who leave are the best and brightest, the economically active
+ Remittances (wages) are sent back


What impact does migration have on countries which people go to? Give both positives and negatives

- Have to provide more housing, healthcare and education for bigger population
- Migrants compete for jobs with locals and may cause increased tensions
+ Migrants bring important skills and stimulate the economy
+ Migrants work for lower wages and make factories more profitable


What impact does migration have on the migrants which move country? Give both positives and negatives

- May not speak the native language, lonely, hoemsick, no sense of community
- May feel isolated, cultural differences will be challenging
+ May be eligible for benefits
+ May get a good job and send money home
+ May get better healthcare
+ May get better education


Population Pyramid Structure
Wide base = ...

High BR


Population Pyramid Structure
Narrow base = ...

Low BR


Population Pyramid Structure
Triangular pyramid = ...

High DR


Population Pyramid Structure
Straight sides = ...

Low DR


Population Pyramid Structure
Short pyramid = ...

Low life expectancy


Population Pyramid Structure
Tall pyramid = ...

High life expectancy


Population Pyramid Structure
Narrow top = ...

Few elderly citizens


Population Pyramid Structure
Broad top = ...

Many elderly citizens


Population Pyramid Structure
Decrease in population at ages 18-25 (young adult males) = ...



Population Pyramid Structure
Increase in population at ages 18-25 (young adult males) = ...



From what ages are you considered of working age?



From what ages are you considered dependant on those of working age?

0-15, and 65+


What can a dependancy ratio tell us about the population of an area?

This will show us the % of the population dependant on the rest of society


How can we calculate the dependancy ratio of an area?

Dependancy ratio = Youth dependant + Age dependant/ working popn x100


Case Study
Describe some of the positive ways in which migration to Germany has benefitted the country of origin, Turkey

+ People leave, pressure off the unemployment rate
+ Remittances, improved economy
+ Workers only spend a few years away, bring money and skills back when they return
+ Reduced pressure on services, allowing the government to concentrate on essential services
+ Migrants who return, increased knowledge, skills, enriching the Turkish population


Case Study
Describe some of the negative ways in which migration to Germany has affected the country of origin, Turkey

- The people who migrate are often the more educated and skilled workers, so the country experiences a 'brain drain'
- Productivity and innovation declines, as those who are left are less skilled
- Reduction in services, as the economically active are leaving
- Many traditional Turkish people are concerned that the increased global attitude of their people is diluting the Turkish religious beliefs and cultural traditions


Case Study
Describe some of the positive ways in which migration from Turkey has benefitted the destination, Germany

+ Turkish immigrants provided a cheap, skilled workforce, which assisted labour shortage after WW2
+ Increased cheap labour allowed rapid expansion of German manufacturing
+ The Turkish people usually take on jobs that the Germans do not want (Hairdressing, cleaning and driving buses. This provides low cost personal services for the German population
+ Promotes cultural diversity
+Germany has the lowest fertility rate in EU. Migrants are usually younger and will have children, stabilising the BR


Case Study
Describe some of the negative ways in which migration from Turkey has affected the destination, Germany

- In 1967 and 1990, recession led to unemployment. Many Germans lost jobs, Turks remained employed in their lower paid jobs. This fuelled social and ethnic conflict
- More money is spent on translation services, more leaflets are needed in Turkish, students in schools who do not speak German as their first language
- In the early 1990's a number of racial/ethnic attacks on Turkish people led to concerns over social problems in Germany
- Many migrant workers who lived in Germany wanted citizenship but had to wait a long time


Age groups in a demographic transition model are divided into years of what?

Cohorts, years of five


A demographic transition model (population pyramid) starts at what value?

0, years


The majority of population pyramids will show each cohort as a (blank) of the total population but some will show the (blank) of people within each age category.

Raw numbers


What is urbanisation?

The process of an increasing % of people living in towns and cities


What are push factors?

Factors that push people out of the countryside


What are pull factors?

Factors that pull people into cities


Give some examples of push factors which would influence people to move into cities

No jobs
No schools
No land


Give some examples of pull factors which would influence people to move into cities

Better oppourtunities


What impact does urbanisation have on cities?

More young people move into the city and start a family. Therefore the BR rises due to more births but also because of the better medical care provided. Furthermore, the death rate (number of deaths per 1000 people) will decrease because of the increased population size accompanied with the better medical facilities. This will in turn create a natural increase in population in that specific area.


Case Study
Sao Paulo's increase in population is caused by...

Rural/urban migration from the south
International migration from Europe
High natural increase in population, cause by the BR exceeding the DR


Case Study
The pull factors for Sao Paulo are ...

Employment, 50% of Brazil's industry is in or around Sao Paulo
Good transport links
Perception that city work is better and easier


Case Study
The push factors from rural areas in Brazil are ...

Farming is hard, badly paid
Poor services compared to city
Famines and drought are difficult in rural areas


What is a favela?

A 'favela' is the name given to a spontaneous settlement in Brazil


Give the name of one of the biggest favelas present in the Sao Paulo area.



What is the estimated population of the biggest favela and how many households does it contain?

20,000 households
Popn over 100,000


How many migrants arrive in Sao Paulo each week?



Between 1991 and 2000, the city and shanty towns increased in size, state in terms of percentage how large this increase was.

City = increased by 15.7%
Favelas = increased by 57%


Give the negative impacts of transport and traffic in Sao Paulo

Traffic infrastructures can't keep up with the urban growth in the city
Transport facilities are not sufficient
Congestion and traffic jams are huge problems, leads to noise and air pollution


Give detail on the services available to those living in the shanty towns and what affects these services, or lack of them, have on the population.

Basic services are limited with access to electricity, clean water, schools and doctors sporadic
Sewage can contaminate the water supply leading to health issues such as typhoid and dysentery
Diseases can spread quickly through overcrowded conditions
few people can afford medical attention


List many of the factors which are paramount within the shanty towns surrounding Sao Paulo

Segregation - Economic Segregation
Housing - Inequality


Case Study
Describe details of the planning surrounding the Titanic Quarter in Belfast and what it entails.

The inner city urban planning scheme aims to regenerate/improve housing/employment/environment


Case Study
Where is the Titanic Quarter?

75 hectares in Belfast's inner city
10 mins from CBD
East bank of river Lagan
On the site of Harland and Wolff which was disused/derelect by 1990's


Case Study
How much did the investment in the Titanic Quarter cost?

£5 Billion


Case Study
Titanic Quarter
Regeneration definition

Taking action to try and give an area new life by improving buildings, transport and creating jobs


Case Study
Titanic Quarter
In terms of housing, how many apartments and town houses have been built in the area?



Case Study
Titanic Quarter
In terms of employment, how many jobs are projected to be created over a 15 year span?



Case Study
Titanic Quarter
What international firms have set up offices in the Titanic Quarter?



Case Study
Titanic Quarter
In terms of the environment, how has the investment helped the area?

1.5km of waterfront has been created with the addition of parks, walkways, shops and restaurants in the area

Derelict site at the Belfast Gas has been decontaminated


What is a sustainable settlement?

A sustainable settlement is one which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.


Definition of redevelopment

Redevelopment is when an area is demolished and redesigned.


Definition of regeneration

Regeneration happens when an area is being upgraded. The aim is to improve the social and economic look of a place. It usually happens in an area where there is dereliction, pollution or out migration. It might allow some buildings to be restored, for example old buildings being repurposed for a different use.


Case Study
Evaluate the sustainability of this urban planning scheme
What should a sustainable city aim to do:
(Give four points)

- Manage resources, such as oil and forests, as effectively as possible
- Increase opportunities for recycling and reusing materials
- Ensure that the city grows in ways that minimise damage to wildlife and the countryside
- Source more resources, such as food, from the local area

1. Manage resources effectively
2. Increase opportunities for RRR
3. Minimising damage to the environment as a direct result of city growth
4. Source resources locally


Case Study
Urban Planning Scheme
Assess the extent to which this urban planning scheme is sustainable in terms of society and people (Give two points)

Society and people
1. The apartments built in Titanic Quarter provide more housing units than individually spaced out houses, giving the development a smaller 'urban footprint'. Generally, compact housing also reduces heating bills, and allows services such as access to water and bin collections to be shared. These factors combine to make the residential development more sustainable.

2. The modern construction is designed to provide a light and attractive environment within which to live and work. If people enjoy their living space, they are more likely to take pride in their area, encouraging a sense of community and safety in the urban landscape. If people feel safe in their environment they are also more likely to walk and drive around the area, improving social links.


Case Study
Urban Planning Scheme
Assess the extent to which this urban planning scheme is sustainable in terms of the economy (Give two points)

1. Long term employment opportunities are available nearby, for example, in the Belfast Metropolitan College or the Public Record Office for Northern Ireland. This reduces the distance people will have to travel for work and limits the need for personal transport.

2. The area plan incorporates plans for both social and gentrified housing, allowing people with various incomes to live in the area close to their employment.


Case Study
Urban Planning Scheme
Assess the extent to which this urban planning scheme is sustainable in terms of the environment (Give four points)

1. The land in Belfast harbour area was previously used for industry and its regeneration removes much of the old waste and pollution. It is also more sustainable to reuse this land than develop green field sites at the edge of the city

2. The land is used for a variety of purposes, such as residential, economic and retailing, all in close proximity. This reduces the need for transport by car, as movement around the area is easiest by foot, bus and bicycle.

3. The developers of Titanic Quarter are committed to the reduction of waste and the recycling of waste materials. New initiatives for refuse collection and recycling are being trailed and implemented.

4. New developments in green technologies will potentially allow Titanic Quarter to develop alternative energy sources such as solar and wind power.


Give three types of GIS maps that can be generated.

Land use
Broadband customers


Definition of internal migration.

This is when people move from one place to another within the boundaries of a national country.


Definition of gentrification

Gentrification is when an area is demolished and redesigned. However, the aim is that the original residents will not move back into the area. Instead, it aims to attract different, richer people, by building new, more expensive accommodation.


Definition of international migration.

This is when people move from one country to another country internationally.


How many Turks entered Germany in 2011?

31,021 (Approx. 31,000)


What is a population pyramid?

A population pyramid is a graph that can be used to show the specific age breakdown of a population.


What are the social implications of an aged dependency? (Give six points)

1. Care for the elderly: As people get older they might not be able to look after themselves as well as they once could. All of this care can be quite expensive.

2. Impact on family life: As life expectancies increase, older family members are going to live longer and this can put pressure on family life.

3. Medical issues: As medicine advances it provides more cures and improved methods of treatment for illnesses that previously claimed people earlier in their lives. People are now living long enough to suffer from 'degenerative' or long term illnesses (such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease).

4. Loneliness: Many elderly people end up living alone when their partner dies.

5. Ageism: Some elderly people people who reach the age of 65 or 66 would prefer to continue to work but due to corporate or government policy they may be forced to retire. Some older workers also find it difficult to get another job and can face bias due to their age.

6. Security: Some older people feel more vulnerable to crime and vandalism.


What are the economic implications of an aged dependency? (Give three points)

1. Residential care: The government needs to set aside an increased amount of money to create and maintain residential accommodation for elderly people. As people live for longer their needs will change and they will require greater access to ground floor accommodation, lifts, single storey houses or sheltered accommodation.

2. Health care: Quality healthcare for elderly people can be expensive. The government needs to set aside an increased amount of money to cover prescriptions, dental treatment, home visits and home help.

3. Benefits: Each elderly person receives a state pension. Thirty years ago, when life expectancies were lower, it was common for a man to retire at 65, claim his pension for 7 years and die around age 72. However, today a man who retires at 65 might live on to 82 years and the government has to pay out the pension for an additional 10 years. The problem for women is further compounded, as until very recently the retirement age for women was 60, so a typical woman might be claiming a pension for up to 30 years. Other benefits such as free public transport, TV licences and winter fuel allowances also add to the financial burden.


What are the social implications of a youthful dependancy? (Give five points)

1. Lifestyle: Many of these children are born into a life cycle of poverty, which is nearly impossible to break. With larger families, any property and possessions have to be shared amongst more people and each child receives less.

2. Care for young people: Many young people have been made orphans by the death of their parents due to HIV/AIDS, Malaria or Tuberculosis. Orphanages will need to be set up to help look after these children.

3. Overcrowding: In many cases there are too many children living in small and cramped conditions, which can allow illness and disease to spread.

4. Medical issues: There are few doctors or hospitals in most LEDCs and as a result people often die from relatively straightforward illnesses. Children cannot afford even the most basic medicines. There is no 'free' healthcare in the majority of countries and many children suffer as there is no one to look after them properly. Access to hospitals is extremely limited and many people have to travel long distances to reach them.

5. Opportunities/Education: Few children in LEDCs have the opportunity of an education and cannot read or write. They find it very difficult to get 'formal' jobs, preventing them from improving their living conditions. They remain poor through their lives, are often unemployed, forced to remain in squalid conditions in slums and shanty towns, and some turn to crime and vandalism.


What are the economic implications of a youthful dependancy? (Give three points)

1. Education: Many LEDCs were struggling to educate their population even before the population expansion. Now, the few resources that were available for schools and universities have to be stretched much further.

2. Healthcare: Many people cannot afford even the most basic healthcare and they rely on patchy government support or aid agencies to help them. Medicines are basic and can be expensive.

3. Opportunities: There is a severe lack of jobs and opportunities for people in LEDCs. With a massive increase in the population, the children will all grow up together and be looking for the same jobs. This means that many will go into the informal sector or be forced into a life of crime.


What is a settlement?

A settlement is a place where people live and work.


What is a site?

The site of a settlement describes the exact place where a city, town or village might be located.


Definition of location or situation

The location or situation of a settlement is where the settlement is located with reference to what surrounds it. These surroundings include its physical features, its communication links and its neighbouring settlement.


What are some of the physical and human advantages to the situation or location of a settlement? (Give nine points)

Wet point site
Dry point site
Building materials
Fuel supply
Food supply
Nodal point
Bridging points
Shelter and aspect


What are the four measures of settlement hierarchy?

Population size
Function, high and low order


Describe the settlement hierarchy pyramid, ranking the seven types of settlement in order of importance, and note what changes as you move up the pyramid.

Large town
Small town
Isolated dwelling

• Increasing settlement size, population and number of services

• Decreasing frequency of each type of settlement




Explain population size, one of the measures of settlement hierarchy.

The population size is the number of people who live in an area. The population of a place indicates which category it belongs to.


Explain function (high and low order), one of the measures of settlement hierarchy.

The function of a settlement relates to its economic and social development, and refers to its main activities. Today, most larger settlements tend to be multifunctional (they have several functions), although one or two functions might be more important than others.


What are some of the main functions of a settlement? (Give ten points)

Market town
Mining town
Industrial town
Route centre
Service centre
Cultural/religious settlement
Administrative centre
Residential town
Tourist resort


Explain range, one of the measures of settlement hierarchy.

The range is the maximum distance that people will be prepared to travel to obtain a service. As discussed above, people will travel further for high order goods or services than for low order ones. Therefore, the higher the number and complexity of the goods and services that a place provides determines its appeal to people and the distance they will travel to reach it.

The sphere of influence (or market area) is the area that is served by a particular place. This area depends on the size and services of a town and the level of competition from rival settlements.


Explain threshold, one of the measures of settlement hierarchy.

The threshold is the number of people that are needed to ensure that there is enough demand for a particular service. Increasingly, high street shops will do a population threshold analysis before deciding to set up a shop in a particular place.


What are the different types of land-use zones in MEDC cities?
(In chronological order)

CBD (Central Business District)
Inner city residential
Inner city industrial
Suburban residential
Rural-urban fringe


Definition of CBD

Central Business District (CBD)
The central downtown area contains the main commercial streets and public buildings. This is the core of the city's business and civic life and is the place where business and retail meet. In the past, the CBD was an area of varied and competing land-use, but over the years the rising value of CBD land and property has forced out most of the residential and industrial users. Peak land values occur at the centre, where there are department stores, supermarkets, and headquarters and offices for companies with large turnovers and high profits. The smaller trader is forced out to the edge of the CBD. The CBD is an area where vehicle traffic and pedestrian traffic is likely to be most concentrated.


Definition of inner city residential

As factories grew, so too did the number of houses that were needed for their workers. People could not afford transport costs so they needed to live within walking distance of their place of work. In many cases, it was actually the factory owners who built and owned the buildings that their workers would live in. This meant that losing your job meant losing your house as well. In recent times, industry has started to locate to 'brown-field' sites in redeveloped parts of the city or to 'green-field' sites that are in the rural-urban fringe, where industry has space to grow and develop.


Definition of inner city industrial zone

Most old cities in the UK grew up because of heavy industries near the CBD. The inner city was the main source of income for the city. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries many people migrated into cities to work in new factories in the inner city areas that generally surrounded the CBD. Many of the streets in inner cities were built up with terraced houses that were close to the main source of employment or factory.


Definition of suburban residential

Residential areas account for the largest single use of land area in any city (about 45% of the total area in towns over 10,000 people in the UK). Large-scale suburban residential development took place in most cities throughout the twentieth century. Some of this started in cities as early as the 1920s and much of it was fuelled by the increase in car ownership and public transport. People no longer had to live within walking distance of where they worked and could move to houses with more space at the edge of the city. People wanted to access to better, bigger homes, with more space to allow their families to grow.


Definition of rural-urban fringe

From the 1960s, many people had increased disposable income and they wanted more from where they lived. They wanted more than the '2-up-2-down' houses that they had been brought up in, desiring more rooms and green space. Urban sprawl continued, with land in these areas being used for private developments or outer-city council housing estates. Many of these houses were of a high quality, with lots of space and no pollution. Transport costs were high but people who lived here were often able to afford a car, if not two, for personal transport. The city was continuing to expand into the countryside and the boundary between the urban and rural area was rapidly becoming blurred. In many cases, big multi-tenant shopping centres were also built in this area because the land was much cheaper than in the CBD and it had become accessible to the increasing numbers living in the fringe. In recent years, industry has started to relocate here as well, in order to avoid the high costs and congestion of the inner city.


Definition of urbanisation

The process of urbanisation is when people move from rural (countryside) areas into urban (town or city) areas. This is a migration move which increases the proportion of people living in towns and cities.


What are some of the push factors which influence urbanisation? (Give eleven points)

Rural 'push' factors
Many people leave the countryside because they feel forced out of these areas because:

• There are few employment opportunities
• There is pressure on the land (for example, the division of the land amongst children means that each area of land is too small to live on)
• Many families do not own land
• There is overpopulation, resulting in high birth rates
• People are starving, either due to too little output from the farm or crop failure and drought
• Food production is limited due to overgrazing, which has led to soil erosion
• Mechanisation means that there is less need for labour on the farms
• Farming can be hard work with little reward. In LEDCs this lack of money means a lack of machinery, pesticides and fertiliser
• Local communities (for example, Amazon Amerindias) are forced to move due to pressures of farming and logging
• There are few services (schools and hospitals)
• There is little investment by the government in rural areas


What are some of the pull factors which influence urbanisation? (Give five points)

Urban 'pull' factors
Many people are attracted to cities because:

• They are looking for better paid jobs
• They want better housing and a higher standard of living
• They want access to better services (such as schools and hospitals)
• There are more reliable food supplies
• Religious and political activities can be carried out more safely in larger cities due to 'safety in numbers'


What factors cause urbanisation?

Push factors
Pull factors
Natural increase


What is counter urbanisation?

Many MEDC countries have reached their threshold in relation to urbanisation and some people have started to move back into the countryside from the urban areas.


Why does natural increase contribute to urbanisation?

The people who migrate into the city are generally young (and fertile), and once they have become settled, they often have children.
This increased birth rate within the city leads to an increase in a proportion of the population in that area, and the children often grow up and remain in that area, thus contributing to urbanisation.


What are the different types of ways to identify areas of higher or lower altitude on a ordnance survey map?

Contour lines
Colour coded/shaded regions
Specified grid reference location
Triangulation pillar


What are contour lines present on an ordnance survey map?

Lines which join areas of equal height/altitude


A four figure grid reference is read from ...

The bottom corner of the square


Inner city residential
Explain the location of this land use zone in an MEDC city. [3]

Inner city residential, this zone was primarily used for housing for low income workers who were employed in factories or in industry within the inner city industrial zone.