Unit 1C - The Restless Earth Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 1C - The Restless Earth Deck (87):
1

What are the three basic rock groups?

Igneous
Sedimentary
Metamorphic

2

Give two examples of igneous rock types.

Basalt
Granite

3

Give two examples of sedimentary rock types.

Sandstone
Limestone

4

Give two examples of metamorphic rock types

Marble
Slate

5

Explain how igneous rocks formed, making sure to describe their general appearance and structure.
Explain why the formation of a crystalline structure in the rock may not occur.

Igneous rocks are those that have been formed by the cooling and solidifying of molten rock (magma) from underneath the Earth's crust. Crystals are usually evident in the rock. However, if the rock cools quickly as the lava hardens on the surface, there will be little evidence of the crystals (for example, basalt). If the magma is cooled slowly underground, then a crystalline structure will be more evident (for example, granite).

6

Explain how sedimentary rocks are formed, making sure to describe their general appearance and structure.

Sedimentary rocks are those that have been formed by the sediments that have built up over a long period of time, usually under water. The sediments are made up of weathered and eroded material that builds up in layers. As more and more material is added, pressure pushes air and water out, and the sediment gets cemented into a rock.

The mineral particles in the rock are usually made from mud, sand and clay. Limestone and sandstone are good examples of sedimentary rocks. These rocks can contain fossils. Sedimentary rocks are very easy to recognise due to their flat structure in stratified beds.

(Please see diagram of stratified layers of rock on page 107 of textbook)

7

Explain how metamorphic rocks are formed, making sure to describe their general appearance and structure.

Metamorphic rocks are those rocks that have been changed from an earlier state through the addition of pressure or heat. The rocks would originally have been igneous or sedimentary. For example, marble is a metamorphic rock which was once limestone, a sedimentary rock.

Metamorphic rocks are tough and can be highly resistant to erosion, as they have undergone very hard conditions in their formation. They are often used as building materials, for example slate.

8

How is basalt formed?

Lava erupts from volcanoes and solidifies.

9

How is granite formed?

Magma hardens within the Earth's crust.

10

How is sandstone formed?

Particles the size of grains of sand are pressed together.

11

How is limestone formed?

Shells and skeletons of tiny creatures on the sea floor are compressed.

12

How is marble formed?

Limestone is altered by heat or pressure.

13

How is slate formed?

Shale, clay and volcanic ash is changed through pressure.

14

Describe the structure of the Earth.

Crust
Mantle
Outer core
Inner core

15

What is the temperature of the Earth's core?

Over 6,000 °C

16

What is the core composed of?

Iron and Nickel

17

What is the state of the inner core and outer core?

Inner core = Solid
Outer core = Liquid

18

What is the mantle?

The mantle is the thickest layer of the Earth, containing molten rock which flows and moves about.

19

What is the mantle composed of?

Silicate rocks

20

What is the temperature of the mantle?

3,500 °C

21

What are the mantle layers also known as?

The asthenosphere

22

What is the crust?

The crust is the outermost section of the Earth. It is a thin layer, varying in depth in different places. The crust is broken up into several pieces, which are known as plates.

23

The crust and some of the more solid mantle are sometimes known as...

The lithosphere

24

What are plates?

Sections of crustal rock.

25

Who originally proposed the theory of plate tectonics?

Alfred Wegener

26

What was the name of the original supercontinent?

Pangea

27

How do convection currents cause plate movement?

Deep inside the thick mantle layer of the Earth, the extreme heat from the Earth's core causes mantle rock to melt. As the rock becomes liquid, it becomes less dense than the material above it and starts to rise towards the surface. The molten rock (magma) rises and attempts to break through cracks in the crust where possible. The magma in the mantle layer will then interact with the crust (often due to friction from the moving mantle rock) causing sections of the crust to move towards or away from each other. Any excess magma, now that it is far away from its source of heat, will start to cool and solidify, and as the rock becomes more dense, the rock will sink back deeper into the deeper into the mantle, where it will become heated again.

28

What are the two different types of plate that make up the Earth's crust?

Continental plates
Oceanic plates

29

What are continental plates?

Continental plates are usually thick plates that form at land masses/continental areas.

30

What are oceanic plates?

Oceanic plates are usually thinner plates that form at the bottom of ocean floors.

31

What are the features of continental plates, giving an example of the rock types that they are composed of.

• 35-100 km (thick)

• Rocks can be very old

• Generally contains 'light' rocks that are less dense

• Example: Granite

32

What are the features of oceanic plates, giving an example of the rock types that they are composed of.

• 6-10 km (thin)

• Rocks can be very young

• Generally contains 'heavy' rocks that are more dense

• Example: Basalt

33

What are the processes and landforms associated with constructive plate margins.

A constructive plate margin is a boundary where two plates are moving away from each other. They are moved as the convection currents push the plates further away.

Landform: Mid-ocean ridge (a gap in the seabed)
Example: Iceland

34

Constructive plate margins can only occur ...

Under the oceans

35

What are the processes and landforms associated with destructive plate margins?

A destructive plate margin is a boundary where two different types of plate are moving towards each other. They are moved due to the convection currents in the mantle. One denser and heavier oceanic crust plate moves towards the lighter but thicker continental crust plate and the oceanic crust plate is forced underneath. This creates a deep ocean trench where the two plates meet. The movement of this plate creates a subduction zone, where huge amounts of friction mean that earthquakes can be felt.

As the oceanic plate continues to sink, the plate is heated by the surrounding mantle and begins to melt. The increased amount of molten material (or magma) creates more pressure on the magma chamber of any local dormant or active volcanoes. Magma starts to rise and makes its way to the surface quickly, causing violent volcanic eruptions and composite cone volcanoes to be formed .

In some cases the mountain areas are pushed further up as the continental crust collides with the oceanic crust and fold mountains are created.

Landform: Subduction zone, ocean trench and fold mountains
Example: Nevado del Ruiz in Colombia (composite cone volcanoes) and the Andes Mountains (fold mountains)

36

What are the processes and landforms associated with collision zones?

A collision zone (plate margin) is a boundary where two continental crust plates are forced by convection currents in the mantle to move towards each other. The continental crust cannot be pushed down into the mantle, so that plates push each other upwards. Sometimes violent earthquakes can signal plate movement.

A good example of where this process can be seen in action is where the Indian Plate is moving into the Eurasian Plate. The resulting battle between the two plates has created an uplift of the mountains in this area, creating the highest range in the world, the Himalayas.

They start when rivers deposit sediment in a depression between toe large plates. As more and more sediment is laid down on the seabed, pressure is put on it and it forms sedimentary rock. The plates then move towards each other and the rock is crumpled upwards to form the folded mountains.

Landform: Fold mountains
Example: Himalayan Mountains

37

What rock type are fold mountains made of?

Sedimentary

38

What is the geographical term for a depression between two large plates?

Geosyncline

39

When the rock is folded upwards it is called an ...

Anticline

40

When the rock is folded downwards it is called an ...

Syncline

41

What are the processes and landforms associated with conservative plate margins?

A conservative plate margin is a boundary where two plates are slipping past, rather than moving towards or away from each other. No new crust is being created and crust is not being destroyed.

In some cases the plates might be moving in two different directions (one to north and one to south), or the plates could be moving in the same direction, but at different rates. The plates do not pass each other smoothly. There is a huge amount of friction between the two plates, which can build up over time. When the pressure of the friction is released to allow the plate to move, the plate will be 'jerked' forward and the momentum can cause an earthquake.

One example of a place where this is happening is along the San Andreas Fault, which is a fault line that separates the North American Plate and the Pacific Plate. Both plates move northwards, however, the North American plate is moving at a faster speed.

Landform: Fault lines
Example: San Andreas Fault, California

42

Constructive plate margins can be described as ...

Diverging

43

Destructive plate margins can be described as ...

Converging

44

Collision zones can be described as ...

Colliding

45

Conservative plate margins can be described as ...

Slipping

46

What does the term extrusive mean?

Extrusive means that the feature is formed above the Earth's surface, when magma flows out onto the surface as lava and igneous rock remains.

47

Give an example of a lava plateau in the British Isles

Antrim plateau

48

Explain the formation of a lava plateau

The plateau was formed by a series of basalt lava flows that built up on top of each other, creating an extensive extrusive feature.

1. Before the activity that created the volcanic features, the bedrock was made up of old layers of sandstone, which had been covered with clay and limestone (chalk).

2. The first stages of volcanic activity were explosive and produced huge amounts of dust and fragmented rock. This became what is known as the lower basalt. Following this, further volcanic activity brought more lava flows, and the lava came through cracks and fissures in the ground (which can today be seen as dykes and sills). Many small ash cone volcanoes spewed huge amounts of lava.

3. Following a period of relative inactivity (which allowed some of the basalt to be weathered and broken down into red, iron-rich soils) new activity (called the Interbasaltic formation) caused localised eruptions, which created features such as the Giant's Causeway.

4. The final period of tectonic activity brought further lava flows to the surface through fissures that covered the land and formed the cap of the Antrim Plateau.

49

Give an example of basalt columns in the British Isles

The Giant's Causeway

50

Explain the formation of basalt columns

The Giant's Causeway is a great example of a spectacular extrusive feature which is caused when the cooling conditions for basalt are perfect. Geologists believe that columns occurred when lava erupted into an ancient river valley where the lava became trapped and ponder, and cooled very slowly. While the thick lava flows were cooling, some of the surface areas were flooded with water to form temporary lakes. Some of this floodwater could have been from heavy rainfall or from rivers.

As the lava started to cool cracks started to appear on the surface, similar to what happens when mud dries in the sun. The lava lost heat upwards into the atmosphere and downwards into the ground, causing the column shapes to extend many metres.

Therefore the hexagonal columns associated with the Giant's Causeway were a result of perfect cooling conditions. Tension caused by different rates of cooling and shrinking within the column split the column into regular tablets of stone, with curved joints that fitted together in a ball and socket arrangement. The hexagonal shape was the most efficient way to fill a space.

51

What is dolerite?

Dolerite is an igneous rock type, which is similar to basalt but is cooled a little more slowly. Dolerite is harder and more resistant to erosion than basalt.

52

Explain the formation of a volcanic plug

1. Volcanic plugs are intrusive features. (Intrusive means that the feature occurs below the Earth's surface, when the magma does not reach the surface). They are formed when magma is forced up from under the crusts to move up inside the vent of a volcano. Magma pours through the vent of the Slemish volcano as lava and covers the surrounding area with lava, which hardens into basalt.

2. As volcanic activity ends the vent is blocked by a lump of hardened magma, which forms rock called dolerite. Dolerite is harder and more resistant to erosion than basalt.

3. Over time rain, ice and wind weathers away the softer basalt slopes of the volcano, leaving the harder dolerite exposed above the flat landscapes of the Antrim Plateau.

53

Give an example of a volcanic plug in the British Isles

Slemish Mountain

54

Case Study
Give the name, date and location of an earthquake event within the British Isles

Market Rasen in Lincolnshire, England
27 February 2008 at 0056

55

Case Study: Describe and explain the causes and impact of an earthquake in the British Isles.

What was the recorded magnitude of the earthquake?

5.2 on the Richter scale

56

Case Study: Describe and explain the causes and impact of an earthquake in the British Isles.

Describe and explain the causes of an earthquake in the British Isles.

The cause of this earthquake was nothing to do with the movement of major plate boundaries, as Market Rasen is nowhere near the edge of a plate boundary. However, Intraplate earthquakes can happen, and in this case the tectonic pressures from the North Atlantic ridge and the African plate caused stress which led to a sudden rupture along the strike slip fault line in the local area. Some geologists even think that the fault line that runs from Doncaster to Lincoln might be the reason for this movement.

57

Case Study: Describe and explain the causes and impact of an earthquake in the British Isles.

Describe and explain the impact of an earthquake in the British Isles.

• The estimated cost of damage to homes was around £10 million.
• Some buildings were reported to shake for up to 30 seconds.
• There were 15 small after shocks recorded (between 1 and 2 on the Richter scale) over the following weeks and months.
• It was the biggest earthquake to hit the UK in 24 years.
• There was some structural damage to local homes and businesses - roofs collapsed and chimney pots fell from a few houses. Firefighters attended three properties to make chimneys safe.
• Birds and pets became very agitated and 77 hens died in Pete Sargent's shed, which was located directly above the tremor.
• There were no deaths, but one man, 19 year old David Bates, suffered a fractured pelvis when a chimney smashed through the roof and landed on him as he lay in bed. A stone cross had fallen from St Thomas' Church, damaging the church roof and dislodging tiles before smashing onto the ground.
• The spire at St Mary Magdalene Church at Waltham, Leicestershire was also damaged, costing around £100,000 to repair.
• The earthquake was felt as far away as Bangor, Northern Ireland and Bournemouth.
• Emergency services all over the North of England were called by people who had woken up to their house shaking (5,000 calls in one hour).

58

What is an earthquake?

An earthquake is described as a fault rupture that generates seismic waves.

59

What is the focus?

The place where the earthquake originally occurs.

60

What is the epicentre?

The place on the Earth's surface which is the shortest distance from the focus.

61

Seismic waves can be recorded using a ...

Seismograph

62

What is the pattern of global distribution of earthquakes in relation to plate boundaries?

We can identify that major earthquakes occur in zones of activity, which coincide with the plate boundaries that are spread across the surface of the Earth.

63

Name two physical consequences as a direct result of earthquakes

Liquefaction
Tsunami

64

How does liquefaction occur?

Liquefaction occurs when an earthquake hits an area and shakes the wet soil. The shaking causes the water within the soil to start to rise to the surface, and this process turns solid soil and rock into a liquid mud. Buildings will start to sink and tip over as the support for the foundations is waterlogged and cannot maintain the weight of the buildings.

65

What is a tsunami and how does it occur?

A tsunami is a large wave which is created when an underwater earthquake sends shockwaves through the water, causing a surge of water to move towards the coastline. Often the energy transferred due to a tsunami can travel for thousands of miles across the oceans.

1. A rupture in the sea floor pushes water upwards and starts the waves moving.
2. The waves move rapidly across the deep ocean, reaching speeds of up to 500 km/h.
3. As the waves near land, they slow to 45 km/h but get squeezed upwards by the sloping beach and the waves start to increase in height.
4. The waves climb to 10-40 metres in height and move inland, destroying everything in their way.

66

Case Study
Give the name, date and location of an earthquake event outside the British Isles, in an MEDC, and identify the plates involved.

The Great Tohoku earthquake
Japan, Friday 11 March 2011, 14:46 (Local time)
Eurasian plate and Pacific plate

67

Case Study
What was the magnitude of 'The Great Tohoku earthquake'?

9.0 on the Richter scale

68

Case Study
What were the causes of 'The Great Tohoku earthquake' in Japan, an MEDC?

Japan lies in one of the most active tectonic regions in the world. Both the Philippine Plate and the Pacific Plate are moving towards the Eurasian/ North American Plate at a fairly fast rate.

This is a destructive boundary, where a subduction zone has formed. A huge amount of friction built up over time, leading to a megathrust earthquake.

69

Case Study
Name the short term impacts on people as a result of The Great Tohoku earthquake in Japan, an MEDC. Make sure to include facts and figures.

1. Death and injury
20,352 people died (approx. 20,000)
5,314 people were injured (approx. 5,000)
130,927 people were displaced (approx. 131,000)

2. Nuclear crisis
5m high tsunami barrier
9m tsunami wave came ashore
Flooded the plants generators and electrical wiring
People lost energy supply, took time to restore

3. Defences ineffective
Japan had spent billions of dollars building anti-tsunami defences at heights of 12m
Tsunami washed over them, ineffective
Flood water moved 6 miles inland
Destroyed houses, factories, roads and other buildings

4. Damage
332,395 buildings destroyed/damaged by earthquake/tsunami
2,126 roads ''
56 bridges ''
26 railways ''
300 hospitals damaged
11 hospitals destroyed
Estimated 23,000 cars and trucks were destroyed/damaged
Ports were closed for nearly 3 weeks
One dam ruptured and another six were found to have cracks

5. Power supplies
Around 4.4 million households in NE Japan were left without electricity
Power blackouts were experienced for around 3 months in many areas

70

Case Study
Name the short term impacts on the environment as a result of The Great Tohoku earthquake in Japan, an MEDC. Make sure to include facts and figures.

1. Foreshocks and aftershocks
Earthquake was preceded by a number of foreshocks (one measuring 7.2 on March 9th) and hundreds of aftershocks

2. Tsunami
Tsunami hit shoreline 30 mins after earthquake
40m high
Devastated entire towns and lead to loss of life
Pollution was carried by water inland
Sources of clean drinking water were affected in some cases for up to a year

3. Land subsidence
Coastal areas in Japan suffered land subsidence
Beachfronts in some areas dropped by more than 50cm
More susceptible to flooding

71

Case Study
Name the long term impacts on people as a result of The Great Tohoku earthquake in Japan, an MEDC. Make sure to include facts and figures.

1. Economy
Cost: Estimated $235 billion
Estimated 5 years to rebuild

2. Tsunami
Only 58% of people heeded warnings
The water hit 49% of those who did not heed the warning

3. Further casualties
Three members of the Japan ground self-defence force died whilst conducting relief operations
An estimated 922 people died as a result of the harsh living conditions since the earthquake

4. Nuclear energy
Earthquake led to meltdown of seven reactors
Evacuation of local area and a 12 mile exclusion zone (affecting 200,000 people)
Radiation levels at one point were over 8 times normal levels
Radioactive water and leaks contaminated local areas

5. Transport
Sections of Tohoku Expressway were damaged
Sendai airport was hit by tsunami wave
4 trains derailed
1,100 sections of rail line needed to be repaired

6. Rebuilding
Japan Move Forward Commitee
Proposed that young adults and teenagers could help rebuild parts of Japan devastated by the earthquake

72

Case Study
Name the long term impacts on the environment as a result of The Great Tohoku earthquake in Japan, an MEDC. Make sure to include facts and figures.

1. Landmass movement
The quake moved parts of NE Japan 2.4m closer to North America, making parts of Japan wider than before

2. Coastline movement
A 250 mile stretch of coastline dropped by 0.6 m, allowing the tsunami to travel further inland

3. Plate movement
Estimates say that the Pacific Plate has slipped westwards by between 20-40m

4. Seabed movement
Seabed near epicentre shifted by 24m
Seabed of the coast of the Miyagi province moved by 3m

5. Earth axis shift
Earthquake shifted the Earth's axis by between 10-25cm, shortening the day by 1.8 microseconds

6. Liquefaction
Occurred in many parts of Tokyo on reclaimed land
Around 30 homes were destroyed
Around 1,046 buildings were damaged

7. Aftershocks
900 aftershocks since earthquake
Some of which were over 7.0 on Richter scale
Killed people
Damage to electrical supplies
Damage to Higashidori nuclear power plant

8. Antarctica
Seismic waves from earthquake caused massive slabs of ice (one the size of Manhattan island) to fall from the Sulzberger Ice Shelf.

73

Case Study: Evaluation of the management response (MEDC)
Name the predictions and precautions before the earthquake.

1. Earthquake prediction
2. National Disaster Prevention Day
3. Earthquake-proof buildings
4. Early warning systems

74

Case Study: Evaluation of the management response (MEDC)
Describe the predictions and precautions before the earthquake.

1. Earthquake prediction
Japan has spent over £70 million trying to predict earthquakes

2. National Disaster Prevention Day
Every year on 1st September (Anniversary of the Great Kanto earthquake, 1923)
Earthquake and tsunami drills to make sure that emergency and rescue services are ready for any disaster

3. Earthquake-proof buildings
Japan spends billions of pounds on buildings that are designed to be resistant to the effects of earthquakes
Buildings built since 1981 use techniques to be more flexible and less affected by liquefaction, e.g. Shock absorbers, flexible steel frames and deep foundations

4. Early warning systems
World's most sophisticated earthquake and tsunami early warning systems
The tsunami warning system was set up in 1952 with 300 sensors
The Earthquake Early Warning System in Tokyo fetches data from 100 seismographs across Japan

75

Case Study: Evaluation of the management response (MEDC)
Name the immediate and long term strategies after the earthquake.

1. Refugees
2. Rebuilding
3. Evaluating the emergency response
4. Tsunami barriers
5. Social factors
6. Economic factors
7. Aid

76

Case Study: Evaluation of the management response (MEDC)
Describe the immediate and long term strategies after the earthquake.

1. Refugees
Earthquake created over 300,000 refugees
Resulted in shortages of food, water, shelter medicine and fuel for survivors
Temporary shelters were built by the army

2. Rebuilding
Japanese government set up 'Reconstruction Design Council'
Government announced that more than 23 trillion Yen would be made available to aid rebuilding programmes over 10 years

3. Evaluating the emergency response
Many Japanese schools were designated as evacuation centres
There were not equipped
Since earthquake, upgraded centres to save and sustain life in the next big emergency

4. Tsunami barriers
New 18m high barriers around nuclear power stations

5. Social factors
Many festivals went on as normal during the summer months in an effort to raise spirits

6. Economic factors
After the earthquake, the Japanese government and many Japanese companies(Toyota, Honda) wanted to restart production in factories. However, they faced supply problems, as many of the factories that produced their components were severely damaged following the earthquake and tsunami. They also faced energy use restrictions whilst the Japanese government fixed the power supply.

7. Aid
Aid organisations in Japan and worldwide responded to the event.
Japanese Red Cross received $1 billion in donations (mainly from overseas)
Japanese Red Cross distributed 30,000 emergency relief kits and 14,000 sleeping kits in the evacuation centres near Sendai

77

Case Study
Give the name, date and location of an earthquake event outside the British Isles, in an LEDC, and identify the plates involved.

The Haiti earthquake
Haiti, Tuesday 12 January 2010, 16:53 (Local time)
Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault
North American plate
Caribbean plate

78

Case Study
What was the magnitude of 'The Haiti earthquake'?

7.0 on the Richter scale

79

Case Study
What were the causes of 'The Haiti earthquake' in Haiti, an LEDC?

The Earthquake in Haiti was caused by movement at the boundary of the Carribean and North American Plates. In this area the Carribean Plate is moving eastward in a strike-slip (conservative) motion. The movement is not smooth and takes the form of a number of jolts, which can produce earthquakes. In the area where this earthquake struck there had been little movement or activity for 250 years. This earthquake is reckoned to have caused a slip of about 1.8 m.

80

Case Study
Name the short term impacts on people as a result of The Haiti earthquake in Haiti, an LEDC. Make sure to include facts and figures.

1. Location
Earthquake took place very close to the capital city, Port-au-Prince, a very densely populated part of the country.

2. Death and injury
An estimated 222,570 died
An estimated 300,000 were injured
1.3 million were displaced

3. Damage
97,294 houses were destroyed
Hospitals collapsed
Airport damaged
Port damaged
Roads were blocked with debris
More than 1,300 schools were destroyed

4. Poverty
Haiti was already exceptionally poor before the earthquake
145th out of 169 countries
Poorest country in Western Hemisphere
Earthquake worsened conditions further

81

Case Study
Name the short term impacts on the environment as a result of The Haiti earthquake in Haiti, an LEDC. Make sure to include facts and figures.

1. Aftershocks
52 aftershocks (measuring 4.5 or more) over the next month
Caused further damage

2. Mini-tsunami
A 'mini-tsunami' was reported in the small fishing town of Petit Paradis
Three people were swept out to sea and died

3. Damage
Earthquake focus was shallow, which increased the intensity of the shaking
Caused more damage to natural ecosystems, buildings and property

4. Location
Port-au-Prince's residential areas were built on hillsides
They tumbled down the slopes due to the force of the earthquake
Deforestation had occurred in recent years
When earthquake occurred, landslides happened

82

Case Study
Name the long term impacts on people as a result of The Haiti earthquake in Haiti, an LEDC. Make sure to include facts and figures.

1. Industry and employment
One in five jobs were lost
Clothing industry in Haiti accounts for more than 2/3 of exports
Clothing industry was severely hit by earthquake

2. Homelessness
Many people continued to sleep in streets, on pavements or in cars
They were afraid that structures would no be able to withstand aftershocks

3. Aid
Impact of earthquake ---> Nearly a week for relief efforts to be organised properly
Haitian government had to hand over control of airports/ports to US government to hasten and ease flight operations
Medical supplies ran out (antibiotics)

4. Health risks
Many dead bodies remained unburied
Began to decay and decompose in heat and humidity
Caused serious health concerns for survivors

5. Crime
Prison Civile was destroyed, 4,000 inmates escaped
Slow distribution of resources led to sporadic violence and looting in Port-au-Princ

6. Rebuilding
International Haiti Reconstruction Commission, headed by Bill Clinton and Haitin Prime Minister Jean-Max Bellerive
Over £3.42 billion was pledged internationally to rebuild Haiti

83

Case Study
Name the long term impacts on the environment as a result of The Haiti earthquake in Haiti, an LEDC. Make sure to include facts and figures.

1. Physical
Very few impacts on the physical environment

2. Relocation
In April, Haitian Government began to relocate thousands of refugees north of the capital to a more secure location
This was due to the threat of mudslides and flooding from the rainy season

3. Out migration
In the months that followed, many people started to return to the rural areas where they lived and farmed prior to moving into the city before the earthquake

84

Case Study: Evaluation of the management response (LEDC)
Name the predictions and precautions before the earthquake.

1. Earthquake prediction
2. Buildings
3. Emergency services

85

Case Study: Evaluation of the management response (LEDC)
Describe the predictions and precautions before the earthquake.

1. Earthquake prediction
Haiti did not have an organised system for trying to predict or warn people about earthquakes or potential natural disasters.

2. Buildings
Many of the buildings in Haiti were temporary constructions and not built to withstand the most basic damage.

3. Emergency services
The emergency services were inadequate and unprepared for any form of rescue following the disaster.
Many more people would have died if international aid organisations and governments had not stepped in when they did.

86

Case Study: Evaluation of the management response (LEDC)
Name the immediate and long term strategies after the earthquake.

1. Refugees
2. Aid
3. Rebuilding
4. Evaluating the emergency response
5. Cholera
6. Food and Economic security

87

Case Study: Evaluation of the management response (LEDC)
Describe the immediate and long term strategies after the earthquake.

1. Refugees
Over 3 million people were left homeless initially.
Six months later, in July 2010, number of people in relief camps was 1.6 million.
Almost no transitional housing had been built.

2. Aid
International Red Cross
US government organised, through USAID programme, aid.
US response grew to 20,000 civilians and military personnel.
US Vaccination programme, inoculated 1 million people.

3. Rebuilding
By July 2010, six months later, 98% of the rubble remained.
This hindered the aid response.

4. Evaluating the emergency response
It took a while for emergency rescue teams to reach devastated areas.
British search teams were the first to reach Leogane (near the epicentre of the earthquake) on 17 January 2010.
The Red Cross described the town as 'severely damaged ... the people there urgently needed assistance'.

5. Cholera
Late October 2010 ---> Outbreak of cholera.
Required further relief efforts.
Cholera treatment facilities were established.
By the end of 2010, more than 3,300 had died of cholera.

6. Food and Economic security
Aid agencies aimed to promote the agricultural sector.
This would hopefully increase food productivity and increase farm incomes.