Unit 2C - Managing Our Resources Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 2C - Managing Our Resources Deck (58):
1

Definition of carbon footprint

The total set of greenhouse gas emissions that are caused by an organisation, event, product or person.

2

Definition of a resource

A resource is something which we use

3

What is a natural/ physical resource, and give examples of some.

Natural/ physical resources are substances obtained from the environment that help to satisfy human needs.

Coal
Oil
Natural gas
Wind power
Solar power

4

What is a human resource, and give examples of some.

A human resource is service or skill possessed by a particular individual or workforce.

Educated labour force
Skilled labour force
Rich culture of a population (will attract tourists)

5

Definition of renewable resource

A renewable resource is one which can be naturally or artificially replaced and can be used repeatedly.

6

Definition of non-renewable resource

A non-renewable resource is one which can only be used once.

7

Why are the carbon footprints in MEDCs so high? (Give five points)

Note: Use mnemonic

- Food
- Products
- Large homes and modern appliances
- Transport
- Higher car ownership

French
People
Like
Tiny
Hamburgers

(FPLTH)

8

Why are the carbon footprints in MEDCs so high? (Explain five points)

Note: Use mnemonic

- Food
Much of the food supplied in MEDCs is not produced locally. People in MEDCs eat more meat and exotic fruit and vegetables than those in LEDCs, which have been flown many miles.

- Products
With a large disposable income, people in MEDCs buy products which use a lot energy either in their production or their use (for example, clothes, cosmetics and computers).

- Large homes and modern appliances
It takes a lot of energy to heat and to power the homes in MEDCs. People have more disposable income than those in LEDCs, giving them more money to spend on buying technology, which uses a lot of energy.

- Transport
People in MEDCs travel greater distances than those in LEDCs, both within their country and on holiday from their country.

- Higher car ownership
Most families have at least one car in MEDCs and many have more than one. Personal motorised transport is a major source of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

French
People
Like
Tiny
Hamburgers

(FPLTH)

9

Case Study: Identify and evaluate measures to manage traffic in a sustainable manner (Using one case study of a city within the EU, excluding the British Isles)

Name the city.

Freiburg, Southern Germany

10

Case Study: Identify and evaluate measures to manage traffic in a sustainable manner (Using one case study of a city within the EU, excluding the British Isles)

How many people live in this city?

Freiburg has a population of 200,000

11

Case Study: Identify and evaluate measures to manage traffic in a sustainable manner (Using one case study of a city within the EU, excluding the British Isles)

What are some of the problems faced by Freiburg that the sustainable measures aim to control?

Population is 200,000 (approx.) leading to traffic jams, congestion and pollution due to the narrow city streets.

12

Case Study: Identify and evaluate measures to manage traffic in a sustainable manner (Using one case study of a city within the EU, excluding the British Isles)

Name some of the sustainable measures used to manage traffic?

1. Public transport
2. Pedestrians encouraged
3. Cycling encouraged
4. Car use discouraged

13

Case Study: Identify and evaluate measures to manage traffic in a sustainable manner (Using one case study of a city within the EU, excluding the British Isles)

Name and explain some of the measures used to manage traffic.

1. Public transport: Freiburg operates an excellent public transport system which is operated by VAG Freiburg.
The main part of this is electric trams, first started in 1983.
Tram are efficient, quick and cheap.
The first transferable monthly 'environmental ticket' was introduced in 1984.

2. Pedestrians encouraged: Freiburg has an extensive pedestrian zone in the centre of the city where no cars are allowed.

3. Cycling encouraged: 400 miles of cycle paths within city.
Bikes are given priority on roads and at traffic lights.
Safe bike storage introduced, with more than 6,000 bike parking slots in 2009.
Many people cycle everywhere and do not own a car.
Instead many pay around £500 a year to join a car-sharing club where they can hire a car to move 'big loads' of shopping or for when they go skiing.

4. Car use discouraged: Many areas in city are car-free.
No free parking, high car parking charges.
In the Vauban neighbourhood, residents have to sign an agreement that they will not own a car. If they do purchase a car they have to pay £15,262 to the council to park it in a solar garage (multi-storey car park) on the edge of the city.

14

Case Study: Identify and evaluate measures to manage traffic in a sustainable manner (Using one case study of a city within the EU, excluding the British Isles)

Evaluation of sustainability in Freiburg.
What were the positive impacts of the sustainable measures?

1. Fewer cars: Every day fewer cars come into the centre of the city. It is easier to go by bike or tram and it is more difficult and expensive to use a car for short journeys and parking.
People are encouraged to avoid buying a car ---> less personal transport ---> less carbon emissions.
Over the last 10 years carbon dioxide emissions have been reduced by 10% and 35% of the residents choose to live without a car.

2. Greater use of public transport: 68% of trips are made using trams and buses.
Transport system is continually being improved.
Trams are electric and powered from a sustainable source (wind and solar power). Public transport brings reduced carbon emissions.

3. Reduced congestion: Across many cities around the world, congestion means that people are sitting in cars, burning fuel while not moving. Less congestion, any petrol and diesel engines are now used efficiently, creating shorter journeys and therefore less pollution.

4. Improved environment: Less air pollution ---> People can enjoy pedestrian areas and sit outside cafes and restaurants.
This makes the city feel and look better.

15

Case Study: Identify and evaluate measures to manage traffic in a sustainable manner (Using one case study of a city within the EU, excluding the British Isles)

Evaluation of sustainability in Freiburg.
What were the negative impacts of the sustainable measures?

1. Public transport links are limited: The trams tend to travel into the city centre, which can sometimes be inconvenient if you want to travel outside or across the city.

2. Public transport times limited: The public transport system works well for those travelling close to the peak times. However, if people work late at night there is a longer gap between trams arriving, which does not suit the needs of people who work unsociable hours.

3. Overcrowded public transport: During peak times the trams and buses can become overcrowded which can be unpleasant and stressful.

4. Problems for people with car dependent jobs: Some people require cars for their jobs. For example, it can be difficult to get vans and lorries into the city centre for deliveries or to transport shopping and heavy items back home.

5. Car ownership is still high: Although car use has been reduced, many people will still use a car daily, even if they do not enter Freiburg city centre.

6. People do not like the high prices and restrictions: In recent years some have started to question the rules and restrictions that people have to live under. Some think that prices and penalties for having personal transport such as cars are too restrictive and some argue that this is stopping people from choosing to live in Freiburg.

16

What two factors in LEDCs and NICs increase the demand for resources?

Population growth
Economic development

17

Describe how population growth increases demand for resources

As the global population continues to increase, further pressure will be put on global resources. In particular there is a huge demand for the consumption of non-renewable energy.

The worry of course is that at some point in the future we could be in the situation where the number of people in the world far exceeds the amount of resources available.

18

Describe how economic developments in LEDCs and NICs increase demand for resources

Economic developments in LEDCs and NICs has lead to increased energy usage due to increased industrialisation (manufacturing) and the use of modern appliances.

19

How does the demand for resources put pressure on people?

1. Living space
2. Food production
3. Water
4. Steel

20

Describe how the demand for resources puts pressure on people in terms of living space

The vast number of people in NICs and LEDCs puts increasing pressure on living space.
People are tightly squeezed into small areas and can often be forced to live in slums or shanty towns. Quality of life can be compromised and life expectancies can be decreased as a result. As more people move into urban areas there is also an increased pressure on resources to support urban living.

21

Describe how the demand for resources puts pressure on people in terms of food production

Increased population means that NICs and LEDCs have to produce more food. However, in the future demand may exceed land availability.
This puts pressure on agricultural land, leading to soil erosion and pollution.

22

Describe how the demand for resources puts pressure on people in terms of water

Increasing populations and climate change have contributed to decreased water quantity in LEDCs and NICs in particular.

In many LEDCs and NICs, water resources are insufficient and often badly polluted. Both agriculture and industry suffer from water shortages. Many people blame their illnesses and health problems on dirty drinking water.

23

Describe how the demand for resources puts pressure on people in terms of steel

Many LEDCs and NICs demand for iron and steel is fuelled by building and urbanisation programmes. Increasingly, resources will become more difficult to source and prices will increase. Cost of living for people will continue to rise unless new, alternative sources for materials and energy can be found.

24

How does the demand for resources put pressure on the environment?

1. Land
2. Natural resources
3. Waste management
4. Air pollution and global warming
5. Traffic

25

Describe how the demand for resources puts pressure on the environment in terms of land

Urban areas are increasing all the time. LEDC cities are growing at a fast rate, with people moving from the countryside to urban areas, often into shanty towns and slums. As these cities grow they are taking up more and more of the rural landscape, which is destroying natural environments and animal habitats.

26

Describe how the demand for resources puts pressure on the environment in terms of natural resources

Manufacturing, which drives the success of many LEDCs and NICs, requires inexpensive raw materials to turn into saleable products at a minimum cost. Often, the methods used to harvest and collect these raw materials are based on obtaining them as cheaply as possible and environmental concerns are rarely a priority. Open cast mining, large scale tree-felling and gas extraction techniques (such as fracking) can do much to destroy the natural environment. In addition, little money is used to return the environment to normal after the resources have been collected.

27

Describe how the demand for resources puts pressure on the environment in terms of waste management

Humans today produce more pollution and waste than at any other time in history. Urban residents each produce around 200kg of rubbish per year. Disposing of this waste, either by burning or landfill, produces air pollution and smog, can spoil the scenery and leave vast areas of land unusable in the future due to radioactive and chemical waste.

27

Describe how the demand for resources puts pressure on the environment in terms of air pollution and global warming

Increased congestion from burning fossil fuels, wood stoves and from engine exhausts has increased the amount of air pollution in urban areas. In addition, the growth of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased the threat of global warming.
As many LEDCs are investing in industry for the first time, there has been a big increase in air pollution as countries try to develop their economy. This often means that declines in the quality of air and increases to the threat of global warming are happening faster in many of the LEDCs than in MEDCs.

28

Describe how the demand for resources puts pressure on the environment in terms of traffic

As car ownership expands at a fast rate, traffic congestion is increasing and this puts pressure both on people and on the environment. If traffic moves more slowly through the congested arteries of an urban area, more air pollution is created and there is a greater production of greenhouse gases.

29

Evaluate the benefits and problems of one renewable energy source (wind power) as a sustainable solution, using one MEDC case study.
Give the name and location of a wind farm in an MEDC.

Walney Wind Farm
14km west of Walney Island, off the coast of Cumbria
Irish Sea

30

Evaluate the benefits and problems of one renewable energy source (wind power) as a sustainable solution, using one MEDC case study.
Name the benefits of developing wind power.

1. Reduced carbon emissions
2. Sustainable energy source
3. Reduced dependence on imported fossil fuels
4. Value for money

31

Evaluate the benefits and problems of one renewable energy source (wind power) as a sustainable solution, using one MEDC case study.
Name the problems of developing wind power.

1. Harm to wildlife
2. Visual pollution
3. High set up costs
4. The need for alternative sources of energy

32

Evaluate the benefits and problems of one renewable energy source (wind power) as a sustainable solution, using one MEDC case study.
Describe the benefits of developing wind power.

1. Reduced carbon emissions
Reduced carbon emissions which slows down the greenhouse effect

2. Sustainable energy source
Wind power is viewed as one of the most cost-effective and technologically advanced renewables available within the UK. Modern wind turbines are very powerful, reliable and can capture more energy than older versions. A turbine in the UK is likely to be producing power for 70-85% of the year and will have a lifespan of 20 years.

3. Reduced dependence on imported fossil fuels
The majority of UK energy is currently imported from other countries.
By investing in renewable resources within the UK, this will decrease the UK's dependence on overseas imports of fossil fuels.

4. Value for money
The average cost of setting up wind power has been estimated as about 3p per unit more expensive than current electricity prices. Given the recent increase in oil prices, this means that the cost of wind power is actually the same as the cost of producing electricity in the traditional manner.

33

Evaluate the benefits and problems of one renewable energy source (wind power) as a sustainable solution, using one MEDC case study.
Describe the problems of developing wind power.

1. Harm to wildlife
Marine biologists were concerned that offshore wind farms would have big impacts on the animals living in the sea.
Sea mammals (seals, porpoises, basking sharks and whales) might have their sense of direction compromised by the electric fields created by the electric generators.
In some cases sea birds are scared off by the turbine blades and their natural navigation systems may be disrupted by the large banks of turbines.

2. Visual pollution
Many people find the wind farms ugly and believe that tourists will be put off coming to an area because of the proximity of the wind farm. However, the contractors argue that this is actually quite difficult to see the wind farm, 14km offshore, even on a clear day.

3. High set up costs
The initial investment of £1 billion is seen to be very expensive. However, the wind farm moved to full capacity production very quickly and the investment will bring a constant return over many years. The turbines should require minimal maintenance.

4. The need for alternative sources of energy
The big issue with wind power is that there are some days when the wind will not blow and others when the wind speeds exceed the maximum limits (above 26 knots) for safe use of the turbines. This means that there will be days when no energy is produced and a backup energy system will always be needed to ensure there is not a power blackout. This usually means that backup non-renewable power stations need to be ready to be brought up to full power of weather forecasts predict a lack of wind.

34

Why has waste become a major issue in the UK?

1. Shortage of landfill sites
2. Environmental and health concerns
3. The need to meet government targets

35

Describe how waste has become a major issue in the UK in terms of the shortage of landfill sites

Over the last 50 years the main method of waste disposal across the UK, and indeed within Northern Ireland, has been the use of landfill sites. However, Northern Ireland is running out of available sites for landfill and this is even more pressing within Belfast.

36

Describe how waste has become a major issue in the UK in terms of environmental and health concerns

The average household in Northern Ireland produces 1.29 tonnes of waste per year. This works out at around 24kg of waste every week. With fewer landfills allowed for waste management, this means that treating and disposing of this material has become a major problem.

Any waste which goes to landfill will break down and begin to release methane gas. This is a greenhouse gas. A liquid called 'leachate' is also produced and this has the potential to pollute ground water.

37

Describe how waste has become a major issue in the UK in terms of government targets

In 1999 the European Parliament brought out new legislation which divided landfill waste into three main categories:

1. Landfill for hazardous waste
2. Landfill for non-hazardous waste
3. Landfill for inert waste

This new legislation emphasised that waste needed to be treated before being landfilled. The aim of this directive was to prevent or reduce as much waste as possible. Landfill sites across Europe were required to change the way that they operated, complying with national policy and with EU policy. Many countries set their own targets as to how they would transform the way that waste was dealt with.

39

What is the waste hierarchy?

The 'waste hierarchy' ranks waste management options in order of what is best for the environment. The best option is at the top of the pyramid and the least preferred option is at the bottom.

40

Name the different components of the waste hierarchy system

Waste prevention
Reuse
Recycle/compost
Energy recovery
Disposal

41

Definition of reduce (RRR)

Preventing waste from being created in the first place.

42

Definition of reuse (RRR)

This is when different materials are used again, without making them into new products.

43

Definition of recycle (RRR)

This is when waste materials are separated into component parts that can be incorporated into new products.

44

Case Study
Name a local government area which uses a range of sustainable waste management strategies

Belfast City Council

45

Case Study
Why does Belfast need a waste management strategy?

1. Belfast produces a large amount of waste
2. There is a shortage of landfill space
3. Environmental and health concerns
4. EU laws and targets

46

Case Study
What methods are being used by Belfast City Council to manage waste?

1. Recycling bins
The Belfast City Council has invested money into supplying residents with a variety of bins. All households can dispose of their waste properly by selecting the correct bin.

2. Reduction in black bin collections
Belfast currently recycles only 31% of its waste but this needs to increase to 60% by 2020 to meet EU targets. The strategy encourages residents to recycle more by building new recycling centres across the city and inserting new bottle and textile banks in accessible locations such as supermarkets car parks. It has also reduced black bin collections from once a week to once every two weeks, encouraging people to use their recycling bins and centres.

3. Education and advertising
In the last few years a comprehensive education and advertising campaign has been ongoing within the Belfast City Council area and also regionally across Northern Ireland. Waste management officers are keen to engage with all aspects of society from schools to churches to local community groups. Recent TV advertisements have also attempted to educate people about how to recycle more and enjoy a 'green' lifestyle. The Northern Ireland curriculum in schools was also changed to ensure that students have to deal with waste issues in both Primary and Secondary school. Schools are also encouraged to take part in 'Eco-schools' campaigns.

4. Waste treatment facility
In June 2009, Belfast City Council decided to give arc21 (waste management group consisting of Belfast City Council and 10 other council areas) permission to build a new waste treatment facility. The site will house a Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) facility. This will sort and compact waste before it is sent on to a landfill or an Energy from Waste (EfW) plant. This plant will help to meet the EU targets in relation to the amount of waste that people in Belfast send to landfill.

47

Why has tourism grown globally since the 1960s?

1. Increased leisure time
2. Increased disposable income
3. Cheaper travel
- Increased car ownership
- Increased use of aeroplanes for travel
- The rise of low cost air travel
4. Increased health and wealth of pensioners

48

Evaluate the positive impacts of tourism on culture

• People from rich and poor countries can mix and learn from each other in new ways.
• Often when tourists come to a particular area, this triggers a revitalisation of neglected areas and causes the government to invest money in repairing and maintaining them. New community facilities are often built up and local houses, churches and old buildings sometimes receive attention too.
• An increase in tourism can cause a rebirth of local arts, crafts and customs, and locals sometimes engage in producing traditional goods for the tourist market, bringing cash into the community.
• Community tourism can bring benefits to local communities who can host tourists in their village, managing the scheme communally and sharing the profits.

- Tourists learn about different cultures
- Tourists and local people can learn from each other

49

Evaluate the negative impacts of tourism on culture

Crime
- If many wealthy tourists visit an area, some locals might be tempted to steal cameras or money from them.

Insulting the culture
- Tourists may not understand local culture and their behaviour could insult local values or beliefs. Local people can feel undervalued as groups of tourists come to see how the locals live. This can create resentment.

50

Evaluate the positive impacts of tourism on the economy

Jobs created
- Hotel managers, restaurant waiters, souvenir shop assistants and tour guides.

Money brought into the country
- Tourists bring valuable cash into the country, which is spent in the local economy.

51

Evaluate the negative impacts of tourism on the economy

Jobs are seasonal
- At off peak times (in the winter) there are fewer jobs for local people. Also, in economic recessions people do not travel as far and visitor numbers will fall which decreases employment.

Tour companies benefit more than locals
- The big international travel companies such as Thomas Cook and Kuoni make more money than the local people and guides.

52

Evaluate the positive impacts of tourism on the environment

Wildlife is protected and National Parks are created
- Tourists are attracted to places of natural beauty such as Indian Ocean beaches and African game parks. Local councils will ensure that these are protected so that tourists keep coming.

Improved historical buildings
- Local councils will maintain old buildings as tourist attractions.

Improved services and facilities
- Councils will ensure that the areas used by tourists have good roads, airports and leisure facilities which benefit local people too.

53

Evaluate the negative impacts of tourism on the environment

Wildlife is disturbed
- The large numbers of tourists will disturb and damage natural habitats. For example, too many jeeps on safari will cause soil erosion.

Loss of land and water resources
- The best land will be used for tourists. Water will be used for swimming pools and for tourist comforts whilst local farmers may struggle to get enough water for their crops and animals.

54

Case Study: Ecotourism
Give the name and location of a sustainable tourism project from either an LEDC or MEDC

Mara Intrepids Camp, Maasia Mara National Reserve
Kenya, LEDC

55

Case Study: Ecotourism
How far is the Mara Intrepids Camp from the capital city of Nairobi?

298km (approx. 300km)

56

Case Study: Ecotourism
What were the social and economic impacts of this sustainable tourism project?

1. Jobs: Many of the staff at the camp are local Maasai people. This creates much needed employment and a good income.

2. Staff training and opportunities: The Camp are very aware of the risks of injury for game drivers and walking safari guides, so professional training and first aid training is provided.

3. Cultural visits: The camp organises a series of cultural visits for tourists, which helps to build a rapport with the local communities. They also organise regular cultural talks.

4. Community Development Projects: The Mara Intrepids Camp supports local community projects.

5. Community Action: In June 2010 Heritage Hotels (Heritage Hotels Limited own the Mara Intrepids Camp) teamed up with MEAK (Medical and Educational Aid to Kenya) to set up a local 'Eye Mission to the Mara'. Many Maasai people suffer from difficult eye infections that can lead to blindness. 193 patients were diagnosed with minor conditions. 11 had cataract operations. Many were treated for conjunctival infections and 300 bottles of eye drops and 11 pairs of reading glasses were prescribed

6. Supports education: The facility (and its guests) supports a local primary school in Talek. It provides reading and writing materials, and assists students with registering for their Kenya Certificate of Primary Education (KCPE) exams.

57

Case Study: Ecotourism
What were the environmental impacts of this sustainable tourism project?

1. Wildlife conservation: Guests are educated about wildlife conservation and can obtain literature about how wildlife is protected. Guides are trained not to disturb the animals and jeep numbers are kept to a minimum to help reduce noise pollution and stop the erosion of the soil by tracks.

2. Water: Grew water (from washing) and black water (from toilets and sewage) is filtered before being released. Laundry is done manually to minimise water use and all water is metered.

3. Electricity: The majority of electricity is from a generator but char dust (compacted coffee husks) is used to heat water. All appliances and lights in the camp are low energy.

4. Waste: All kitchen waste is composted and is used in an organic vegetable garden. Other waste is recycled (into separate bins) and any remainder is incinerated. Any waste which cannot be managed on-site, such as plastic, glasses and cartons, are taken back to Nairobi for proper management.

5. Food: The camp has an eco-garden where it grows its own vegetables.

6. Buildings: Many of the camp buildings and structures are temporary and are designed to blend into the environment. Path lights are covered with local materials and painted green.

58

What is an OECD country?
What does OECD stand for?

OECD = The 34 countries that have signed up to the Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (mostly comprised of MEDCs).