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Flashcards in Unit 3 Deck (17)
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0

What is meant by the term isotope?

Isotopes have the same atomic number but different mass numbers.

1

What are the three main types of radiation or radioactive decay depending on the isotope?

Alpha Decay
Beta Decay
Gamma Decay

2

How is alpha decay caused?

Alpha decay is caused when there are too many protons in a nucleus.

3

How is beta decay caused?

Beta decay is caused when there are too many neutrons in a nucleus.

4

How is gamma decay caused?

When there is too much energy in the nucleus.

5

What is the definition of a half-life?

A half life is the time it takes for half of the Atoms in a radioisotope to decay.

6

What are the three main causes of background radiation?

Naturally occurring radioisotopes
Artificial radioisotopes
Cosmic Rays

7

What are naturally occurring radioisotopes?

These are found in tiny amounts in nearly all materials, including living things.

8

What are artificial radioisotopes?

Pollution from nuclear bomb testing, accidents like Chernobyl and leakage from nuclear submarines and power stations.

9

What are cosmic rays?

These are high energy gamma rays which bombard the planet all the time coming from the su and outer space.

10

What radioisotope can be used to treat rumours in the body?

Cobalt-60, a gamma emitter.

11

What radioisotope can be used to irradiate food to kill bacteria?

Cobalt-60, a gamma emitter.

12

What radioisotope is used to determine the age of archaeological specimens that were living materials?

Carbon-14

13

Define nuclear fission..

When an unstable isotope splits with being bombarded with something.

14

What is the formula of an alpha particle?

4
He
2

15

What is the formula of a beta particle?

0
e
-1

16

What is meant by nuclear fusion?

This is the process where the nuclei of lighter elements become more stable by fusing together to form a larger nuclei.