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Flashcards in Unit 3 Deck (201)
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1

Cardiac output it determined mainly by ___________

Venous return

2

What are the factors that influence Venous return?

Body metabolism (local flow and autoregulation)

3

______ is a slow process of plaque formation where large quantities of cholesterol become deposited beneath the endothelium, scar tissue forms (fibrosis) and then calcifies (plaque)

Atherosclerosis

4

Partial or total blockage of coronary arteries leads to _______

Ischemia (lack of blood flow)

5

________ is a sudden process which occurs due to a thrombus or an embolus

Acute coronary occlusion

6

______ is a penetrating atherosclerotic plaque can cause a blood clot to form which quickly occludes an artery

Thrombus

** when this breaks away, it is then called an embolus

7

_______ is a thrombus that has broken loose for th site of origin and flows to another site where it lodges

Embolus

***leads to acute coronary occlusion

8

_________ is an attempt by the body to restore blood supply to ischemic tissue

Collateral circulation

9

During plaque formation, _______ may occur during plaque development

Angiogenesis

10

After _______ angiogenesis is too slow to restore blood flow acutely, however _______ of collateral vessels may resent some cardiac muscle death

After acute occlusion; vasodilation

11

Ischemic heart disease includes what 4 forms?

Angina pectoris
Coronary artery disease
Myocardial infarction
Sudden cardiac death

12

What does angina pectoris mean?

Chest pain

13

What are the types of angina pectoris?

Chronic stable angina
Unstable angina

14

______ is often a prelude to MI if not treated

Angina

15

_________ angina is where pain comes along during activity and is released at rest

Chronic stable angina

16

______ angina where chest pain comes and goes and doesnt seem to be related to anything

Unstable angina

17

Myocardial infarction results from an _________

Acute coronary occlusion

18

The muscle has ________ blood flow and the area affected ceases to function and may die during myocardial infarction SP’s

Little or no blood flow

19

Myocardial infarction most commonly affects the __________

Left ventricle

20

What are the causes of death due to MI

-decreased cardiac output
-pulmonary edema and kidney failure
-fibrillation
-cardiac rupture (rare)

21

Decreased CO can cause death due to MI when more than ______ of the left ventricle is infarcted (no blood flow) OR when _________ exacerbates the decrease in CO

40% of the left ventricle is infarcted

Systolic stretch exacerbates the decrease in CO

22

Pulmonary edema and kidney failure results from_____________ and can clean to death from an MI?

Result from the backlog of blood in the body’s venous system

23

______ is a chaotic pattern of contraction in the ventricles

Fibrillation

24

Fibrillation may result from:
-leakage of ______ from infarcted area
- formation of an _______
-_______ reflexes
- bulging weka muscle sets up __________

K+; injury current; sympathetic reflexes; circus movement

25

The anatomy of an infarcted is made up of a _____ area and a ____ area

Central area and peripheral area

26

Central area made up of _______
Peripheral area made up of ______

**anatomy of an infarct

Dead cardiac myocytes

Non-functional but living myocytes

27

Recovery from MI:
Dead fibers are replaced by _______
Nonfunctional fibers either ____ or ______ depending on if the color is dissolved or collateral circulation is adequate
Normal tissue ______ overtime to compensate for tissue loss

Scar tissue; die or recover; hypertrophies

28

What are some life style modifications for treatment for ischemic heart diseases?

Lose weight
eat a diet low in Saturated fat and cholesterol
Exercise

29

What are other treatments for ischemic heart diseases?

Nitroglycerin
Beta blockers
TPA (tissue plasminogen activator)
Bypass surgery
Angioplasty

30

What is the definition of congestive heart failure?

Failure of the heart to pump enough blood to satisfy the needs of the body