Flashcards in Unit 3- How do people learn and remember SAC 1 Deck (44):
Learning is a relatively permanent change in behaviour due to experience
An active information processing system that encodes, stores and retrieves information
What are 2 behaviours that are not learned
reflex actions, maturation
Is a person's memory a perfect replica of the world?
no, it is a personal interpretation of the world
Can memories change and be lost?
Define neural plasticity
The ability of the brain to change in structure and functioning in response to the environment. Neural connections are formed, removed and remade on a continual basis.
What are the two types of plasticity
Developmental and adaptive
What is developmental plasticity
the change in structure and function of the nervous system that involves the growth and consolidation of neural pathways in infants, children and adolescents. It involves 5 stages: proliferation, migration, circuit formation, synaptic pruning and myelination.
What are the five stages of developmental plasticity
What is proliferation
The first stage of developmental plasticity where cells multiply to form neurons
What is migration
the second stage of developmental plasticity where neurons move to their specialised areas
What is circuit formation
the process that involves axons of new neurons growing out to target cells, forming new synapses and neural pathways (synaptogenesis)
What is synaptic pruning
the loss/removal of unnecessary neural connections formed during developmental plasticity.
what is myelination
The production of what, fatty covering (myelin) that insulates a neuron's axon which speeds neural messages.
What is adaptive plasticity
The ability go the brain and nervous system to change, adapt and grow as a result of new experiences.
What are the two stages of adaptive plasticity
Sprouting and rerouting
What is sprouting
the creation of new neural pathways (synaptogenesis)
What is rerouting
using, finding or strengthening alternative pathways
What is synaptogenesis
the process of moulding or forming new synapses
What is long term potentiation
A process in which repeated stimulation of a synaptic connection results in the long lasting strengthening of the synaptic connections resulting in enhanced and more effective synaptic transmission.
How do synapses strengthen during long term potentiation
1. more vesicles and thus neurotransmitters are produced in the pre-synaptic neutron in reaction to action potential. Therefore, more neurotransmitters are released into the synaptic cleft.
2. More receptor on the post-synaptic membrane to created a greater chance of neurotransmitters binding with receptors.
3. Neurotransmitters and receptors become more sensitive.
What changes as a whole for the neutron for long term- potentiation
Dendritic spines grow to ensure more connections and faster transmission
A increased number of axon terminals
What is long term depression
the weakening of an existing synapse strength over time when the frequency of electrical stimulation is reduced
why do we need long term depression
long term depression plays an important role in clearing synapses/memories that are no longer needed or not used enough. Further, this conserves resources so we can make new synapses. For example when you learn to walk you need that memory/synapse continuously as a child, but through it becoming innate and learning it, you no longer need this synapse for when your re older.
what is the relationship between neurotransmitter and neurohormones and learning
Some neurotransmitters help memory storage while others can disrupt it.
It is known that different types of memory and learning are assisted by the neurotransmitters,
how is a neurohormone different to a neurotransmitter
- released by neutron into the blood stream and circulatory system
- can function as a hormone or neurotransmitter
- can be slow but is long lasting
How is glutamate involved in long term potentiation
- Glutamates main role is cognition, learning and memory
- binds neurons together through synaptic plasticity
- also triggers dopamine to be released which helps dendritic spines to grow
How is adrenalin involved in long term potentiation
- effect on enhancing long-term memory
- apart of coding process especially emotional memories
- ensures memory strength relates to memory importance
What is classical conditioning
a simple form of learning which occurs through repeated association of two different stimuli to produce a naturally occurring response. In classical conditioning, the learner is passive.
what is the neutral stimulus
produces no naturally occurring response
What is the unconditioned stimulus
something that is presented that produces a naturally occurring response (unconditioned response)
What is an unconditioned response
A natural reaction that occurs upon presentation of an unconditioned stimulus
What is a conditioned stimulus
Something that is presented that when repeatedly paired with an unconditioned stimulus, produces a conditioned (learned) response
What is a conditioned response
A reaction that occurs upon being presented to a conditioned stimulus
What is the same during classical conditioning experiements
NS and CS
UCR and CR
What are the stimuli/response before conditioning
NS - no response
UCS = UCR
What are the stimuli/responses during conditioning
What are the stimulus/response after conditioning
NS = CS
UCR = CR
Using the dog and the bell and food as an example. Explain the before, during and after conditioning stage
Bell = NS
Food = UCS
Bell + Food = salivate (UCR)
Salivate = CR
What is stimulus discrimination
when an individual elects a the conditioned response to the original conditioned stimulus (not others that a similar to the conditioned stimulus)
What is stimulus generalisation
The tendency for a stimulus similar to the original conditioned stimulus produce a response that is similar (but not necessarily identical) to the original conditioned response
What is extinction in classical conditioning
The disappearance of the CR following a lack of pairing with of the UCS with the CS.
What is Acquisition
The development of a CR through repeated association of the UCS and CS/NS