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Flashcards in Unit 3 - Nervous systems Deck (70):

What is role of the Central Nervous system?

The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. It receives sensory information from the peripheral nervous system about stimuli is the environment and processes this information before deciding to carry out a response.


What is the role of the peripheral nervous system

The peripheral nervous system consists of the complete network of neurons located outside the CNS, comprised of all muscles, glands and organs. The role of the PNS is to receive information from the receptor sites and transmit this information to the CNS. Its role is also to respond to this info through effector sites once the CNS decides on an appropriate response. The PNS is broken into two subdivisions, being somatic and autonomic.


What is the CNS made up of

Brain and spinal cord


What is the role of the brain

Responsible for higher order thinking and functioning, while regulating and guiding all other parts of the nervous system. Receives and interprets sensory information and decides on appropriate motor responses to this information.


What is the role of the spinal cord

passes sensory information from pas to brain. Passes motor information from brain to PNS.


Why is the spinal cord referred to as a two direction highway?

There are many afferent tracts going from the PNS towards the brain and efferent tracts going from the brain to the body.


what is the role of the nervous system

The role of there nervous system is to receive, process and respond.


What are receptor sites

Where sensory information is received (skin, sight, taste, hearing)


What are effector sites

where response initiated by the motor neurons occurs


what is the role of the somatic nervous system?

The somatic nervous system is responsible for voluntary, movement and responses. It consists of a network of neurons within the body that transmits information from receptor site to the CNS.


What is the role of the autonomic nervous system

Responsible for regulating the function of internal organs and glands involuntarily, with our conscious control. It also focuses on our body's survival and maintaining regulation.


can we have conscious control over our autonomic nervous system

It is possible to have some control over the Autonomic nervous system through a process called biofeedback..


What is biofeedback

A process by which we can control our autonomic nervous system functions. Whereby we receive information from the ANS to know when to use specific technique to exert some form of control over the ANS. such as slowing our breathing when we feel our heart rate increase


What are the two decisions of the autonomic nervous system

sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system


what is the process from reception to the effector site

receptor site - sensory neuron - afferent pathways -spinal cord/afferent tracts - brain/interneurons - mortor neurons -efferent tracts/spinal cord - efferent pathways - effector site


What is the role of the sympathetic nervous system

Division of the Ans that activates the internal muscles organs and glands to prepare the body for vigorous activity or to deal with a stressful/threatening situation. It is the part of the nervous system involved in the fight-flight-freeze response.


What does the sympathetic nervous system do to the body?

Release adrenalin, increase heart rate, increase respiration, dilated pupils


Define the fight flight freeze response

The fight flight freeze response is initiated by the sympathetic nervous system to prepare the body to confront a stressful situation to optimise the chance of survival. Which mechanism adopted is dependant on the likelihood of survival in each situation


What is the role of the parasympathetic nervous system

Davison of the ANS that keeps the body functioning effectively and maintaining homeostasis. Counter balances sympathetic nervous sytem


How do the two system work together to keep the body functioning at its optimal level?

Work together to harness and reserve the body's resources needed at any one time.


What are sensory neurons

Neurons that carry messages from the receptor sit to cns


what are motor neurons

Carry motor neural information from cos to effector site


what is the difference between conscious and unconscious responses

Some information involves our conscious awareness and somatic nervous system functions, meaning we are in control of these actions and can stop them at any time whereas unconscious responses we are not aware of and involve our autonomic nervous system; we cannot control these functions such as breathing, heart rate, stomach contractions.


What is the spinal reflex

Often called the reflex action or reflex arc, the spinal reflex is An unconscious response initiated by inter-neurons in the spinal cord NOT THE BRAIN when a response is urgent. It is a type of survival response that occurs before we register it in the brain.


How come we become conscious pain after the spinal reflex occurs

Because neutron still travel to the brain for us to register this act and take further conscious responses such as crying, screaming etc.


What does a spinal reflex occur?

Used to help our survival when we need to respond quickly!


What is the role of the interneuron

To allow motor and sensory neurons to communicate between each other


What are afferent neurons



What are Efferent neurons



What is the role of dendrites

Receives and detects neural information from pre-synaptic neurons


What is the role of the Soma

Integrates information received from the dendrites and transmits to axon. Contains the nucleus which is responsible for keeping the cell alive


What is the role of the nucleus

Contains genetic material within the cell and controls neural flow


What is the role of the axon

Carries the neural impulse away from the cell body towards the axon terminals.


What is the role of the myelin sheath

Acts as an electrical insulator and increases the speed of neural signals down the axon.


What is the role of the axon terminals?

Stores chemicals called neurotransmitters which assist in the transmission of neural information from one neuron to another.


What are all the parts of the neuron

Dendrites, soma, nucleus, myelin sheath, son, axon terminals, terminal buttons


What energy is used during neural communications



Why do neurons adapt

To suit the frequency we need them and the speed of communication


What type of energy is used with communication within neurons



What is resting potential

Negatively charged neutron that are unactivated and waiting for a neural message


What is the charge inside and outside a resting potential neutron

Inside: negative
Outside: Positive


What is action potential

Occurs when neutron is activated by a neural impulse. Once this starts its all or nothing


What is the charge inside and outside an action potential neuron

Inside: positive
Outside: Negative


What is the type of energy used when there is communication between neurons



What is the process of neural communication between neurons

Pre-synaptic neuron' terminal button releases neurotransmitters across the synaptic gap and is received by the receptors on the membrane on the post synaptic neutron whereby it is converted to electrical energy


What is synapse

The process by which neurotransmitters travel across the gap from the post synaptic neutron to the pre synaptic neutron


What is the role of neurotransmitters

A neurotransmitter is a chemical substance, typically made up of small molecules. When a neurotransmitter is released t finds the receptor on the post-synaptic membrane. Each neurotransmitter binds with a specific type of receptor. This works as a lock and key process to unlock the receptor's potential.


what is meant by the 'lock and key' process

Each neurotransmitter binds with a specific receptor, and therefore only particular types of neurotransmitters can unlock that receptors potential


What are the 2 types of neurotransmitters

excretory and inhibitory


What is the role of excitatory neurons

To cause neurons to fire and thus stimulate a response


What are two types of excitatory neurotransmitters

Glutamate and dopamine


what is the role of glutamate

Memory formation and learning


What is the role go Dopamine

Drive, motivation and movement


What is the role of inhibitory neurotransmitters

To stop/slo the neutron from firing and hence prevent a response


what are two most prominent inhibitory neurotransmitters



What is the role of GABA

reducing anxiety, motor control, vision


What is the role of serotonin

Stabilising mood


What happens if you have too much and not enough glitamate

Too much: Overwhelmed with learning and memories,
Too Little: Can't consolidate or form a memory


What happens if there is not enough GABA



When can neurotransmitter deficiency occur?

from an imbalance or deficiency in a particular type of neurotransmitter


What are some causes of neurotransmitter interuption

Alcohol and drugs, diet and nutrition, stress, genetics


What are 4 side effects of neurotransmission

mental health disorders, addiction, immobility, weight loss/gain


How can neurotransmitter interruptions be treated

Through drugs and medication that artificially replaces lost neurotransmitters


What is a result of deficiency in serotonin

emotional disturbance that can result in depression, ADHD, and schizophrenia, cannot associate emotion with situation


What is the result of a deficiency in dopamine



Define Parkinsons disease

Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterised by both motor and non-motor symptoms, such as tremors, rigidity and slowness in thinking.


What is the causes of Parkinson's disease symptoms?

Result from a damaged or diseased substantial nigra which has a role in the control of voluntary, smooth coordinated movements. The substantial nigra produces dopamine, and therefore through this damage there is a loss of production. and neural messages to the basal ganglia and primary motor cortex are received slower and less causing a disruption in movement.


What is the role of dopamine in Parkinsons disease

Dopamine is produced in the substantia nigra which is damaged/diseased in Parkinson's. With there being less dopamine neurons there is less neural messages being transmitted to the basal ganglia and from there, the primary motor cortex. This results in disrupted movement as the brain structures receive less and slower messages about motor activity.


What age group does parkinson affect



What is the role of GABA

Reduces sensitivity to muscle cells to nerve stimulation.