Flashcards in Unit 3 - Nervous systems Deck (70):
What is role of the Central Nervous system?
The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. It receives sensory information from the peripheral nervous system about stimuli is the environment and processes this information before deciding to carry out a response.
What is the role of the peripheral nervous system
The peripheral nervous system consists of the complete network of neurons located outside the CNS, comprised of all muscles, glands and organs. The role of the PNS is to receive information from the receptor sites and transmit this information to the CNS. Its role is also to respond to this info through effector sites once the CNS decides on an appropriate response. The PNS is broken into two subdivisions, being somatic and autonomic.
What is the CNS made up of
Brain and spinal cord
What is the role of the brain
Responsible for higher order thinking and functioning, while regulating and guiding all other parts of the nervous system. Receives and interprets sensory information and decides on appropriate motor responses to this information.
What is the role of the spinal cord
passes sensory information from pas to brain. Passes motor information from brain to PNS.
Why is the spinal cord referred to as a two direction highway?
There are many afferent tracts going from the PNS towards the brain and efferent tracts going from the brain to the body.
what is the role of the nervous system
The role of there nervous system is to receive, process and respond.
What are receptor sites
Where sensory information is received (skin, sight, taste, hearing)
What are effector sites
where response initiated by the motor neurons occurs
what is the role of the somatic nervous system?
The somatic nervous system is responsible for voluntary, movement and responses. It consists of a network of neurons within the body that transmits information from receptor site to the CNS.
What is the role of the autonomic nervous system
Responsible for regulating the function of internal organs and glands involuntarily, with our conscious control. It also focuses on our body's survival and maintaining regulation.
can we have conscious control over our autonomic nervous system
It is possible to have some control over the Autonomic nervous system through a process called biofeedback..
What is biofeedback
A process by which we can control our autonomic nervous system functions. Whereby we receive information from the ANS to know when to use specific technique to exert some form of control over the ANS. such as slowing our breathing when we feel our heart rate increase
What are the two decisions of the autonomic nervous system
sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system
what is the process from reception to the effector site
receptor site - sensory neuron - afferent pathways -spinal cord/afferent tracts - brain/interneurons - mortor neurons -efferent tracts/spinal cord - efferent pathways - effector site
What is the role of the sympathetic nervous system
Division of the Ans that activates the internal muscles organs and glands to prepare the body for vigorous activity or to deal with a stressful/threatening situation. It is the part of the nervous system involved in the fight-flight-freeze response.
What does the sympathetic nervous system do to the body?
Release adrenalin, increase heart rate, increase respiration, dilated pupils
Define the fight flight freeze response
The fight flight freeze response is initiated by the sympathetic nervous system to prepare the body to confront a stressful situation to optimise the chance of survival. Which mechanism adopted is dependant on the likelihood of survival in each situation
What is the role of the parasympathetic nervous system
Davison of the ANS that keeps the body functioning effectively and maintaining homeostasis. Counter balances sympathetic nervous sytem
How do the two system work together to keep the body functioning at its optimal level?
Work together to harness and reserve the body's resources needed at any one time.
What are sensory neurons
Neurons that carry messages from the receptor sit to cns
what are motor neurons
Carry motor neural information from cos to effector site
what is the difference between conscious and unconscious responses
Some information involves our conscious awareness and somatic nervous system functions, meaning we are in control of these actions and can stop them at any time whereas unconscious responses we are not aware of and involve our autonomic nervous system; we cannot control these functions such as breathing, heart rate, stomach contractions.
What is the spinal reflex
Often called the reflex action or reflex arc, the spinal reflex is An unconscious response initiated by inter-neurons in the spinal cord NOT THE BRAIN when a response is urgent. It is a type of survival response that occurs before we register it in the brain.
How come we become conscious pain after the spinal reflex occurs
Because neutron still travel to the brain for us to register this act and take further conscious responses such as crying, screaming etc.
What does a spinal reflex occur?
Used to help our survival when we need to respond quickly!
What is the role of the interneuron
To allow motor and sensory neurons to communicate between each other
What are afferent neurons
What are Efferent neurons
What is the role of dendrites
Receives and detects neural information from pre-synaptic neurons
What is the role of the Soma
Integrates information received from the dendrites and transmits to axon. Contains the nucleus which is responsible for keeping the cell alive
What is the role of the nucleus
Contains genetic material within the cell and controls neural flow
What is the role of the axon
Carries the neural impulse away from the cell body towards the axon terminals.
What is the role of the myelin sheath
Acts as an electrical insulator and increases the speed of neural signals down the axon.
What is the role of the axon terminals?
Stores chemicals called neurotransmitters which assist in the transmission of neural information from one neuron to another.
What are all the parts of the neuron
Dendrites, soma, nucleus, myelin sheath, son, axon terminals, terminal buttons
What energy is used during neural communications
Why do neurons adapt
To suit the frequency we need them and the speed of communication
What type of energy is used with communication within neurons
What is resting potential
Negatively charged neutron that are unactivated and waiting for a neural message
What is the charge inside and outside a resting potential neutron
What is action potential
Occurs when neutron is activated by a neural impulse. Once this starts its all or nothing
What is the charge inside and outside an action potential neuron
What is the type of energy used when there is communication between neurons
What is the process of neural communication between neurons
Pre-synaptic neuron' terminal button releases neurotransmitters across the synaptic gap and is received by the receptors on the membrane on the post synaptic neutron whereby it is converted to electrical energy
What is synapse
The process by which neurotransmitters travel across the gap from the post synaptic neutron to the pre synaptic neutron
What is the role of neurotransmitters
A neurotransmitter is a chemical substance, typically made up of small molecules. When a neurotransmitter is released t finds the receptor on the post-synaptic membrane. Each neurotransmitter binds with a specific type of receptor. This works as a lock and key process to unlock the receptor's potential.
what is meant by the 'lock and key' process
Each neurotransmitter binds with a specific receptor, and therefore only particular types of neurotransmitters can unlock that receptors potential
What are the 2 types of neurotransmitters
excretory and inhibitory
What is the role of excitatory neurons
To cause neurons to fire and thus stimulate a response
What are two types of excitatory neurotransmitters
Glutamate and dopamine
what is the role of glutamate
Memory formation and learning
What is the role go Dopamine
Drive, motivation and movement
What is the role of inhibitory neurotransmitters
To stop/slo the neutron from firing and hence prevent a response
what are two most prominent inhibitory neurotransmitters
What is the role of GABA
reducing anxiety, motor control, vision
What is the role of serotonin
What happens if you have too much and not enough glitamate
Too much: Overwhelmed with learning and memories,
Too Little: Can't consolidate or form a memory
What happens if there is not enough GABA
LESS CONTROL AND MORE ANXIETY
When can neurotransmitter deficiency occur?
from an imbalance or deficiency in a particular type of neurotransmitter
What are some causes of neurotransmitter interuption
Alcohol and drugs, diet and nutrition, stress, genetics
What are 4 side effects of neurotransmission
mental health disorders, addiction, immobility, weight loss/gain
How can neurotransmitter interruptions be treated
Through drugs and medication that artificially replaces lost neurotransmitters
What is a result of deficiency in serotonin
emotional disturbance that can result in depression, ADHD, and schizophrenia, cannot associate emotion with situation
What is the result of a deficiency in dopamine
Define Parkinsons disease
Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterised by both motor and non-motor symptoms, such as tremors, rigidity and slowness in thinking.
What is the causes of Parkinson's disease symptoms?
Result from a damaged or diseased substantial nigra which has a role in the control of voluntary, smooth coordinated movements. The substantial nigra produces dopamine, and therefore through this damage there is a loss of production. and neural messages to the basal ganglia and primary motor cortex are received slower and less causing a disruption in movement.
What is the role of dopamine in Parkinsons disease
Dopamine is produced in the substantia nigra which is damaged/diseased in Parkinson's. With there being less dopamine neurons there is less neural messages being transmitted to the basal ganglia and from there, the primary motor cortex. This results in disrupted movement as the brain structures receive less and slower messages about motor activity.
What age group does parkinson affect