UNIT 3 - How do people learn and remember SAC 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in UNIT 3 - How do people learn and remember SAC 2 Deck (51):
1

Define operant conditioning

Operant conditioning is a learning process in which the likelihood of a behaviour occurring is determined by the consequences of that behaviour

2

What are two characteristics of operant conditioning

The learner is active
Form of voluntary learning

3

What does operant mean in operant conditioning

An operant in a response that occurs and acts (operates) on the environment to produce some sort of effect

4

What are the three phases of operant conditioning

Antecedent/discriminative stimulus
Behaviour/operant response
Consequence

5

What is the antecedent / discriminative stimulus

The stimulus that occurs before the behaviour stage that triggers/initiates the operant response.

6

What is behaviour stage of operant conditioning

Also known as operant response, is the voluntary response caused by the antecedent

7

What is the consequence stage of operant conditioning

The result of the behaviour, which determines the likelihood of the behaviour occurring again. There are two forms of consequence, reinforcement or punishment.

8

What are the two types of consequence

reinforcement
punishment

9

What does positive and negative mean in the context of operant conditioning

Positive: Giving something (applying)
Negative: Taking something away (remove)

10

What is reinforcement

When a desirable behaviour is encouraged with the view of strengthening it, thus increasing the likelihood of the behaviour occurring agin

11

What is positive reinforcement and give an example

When something desirable is given to strengthen the likelihood of a response
e.g. if you do your homework you get a treat

12

What is negative reinforcement and give an example

The removal of ab unpleasant/undesirable stimulus to strengthen the likelihood of a response
e.g. If you do your homework you don't have to do your chores

13

Define Punishment

When an undesirable behaviour is discouraged in an aim to weaken the likelihood of the behaviour

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what is punishment/positive punishment and give an example

When a n undesirable stimulus is given to weaken/decrease the likelihood of a behaviour occurring
e.g. yelling at child who has drawn on the bedroom walls

15

What is an example of negative punishment/response cost

A form of punishment were something desirable is removed to weaken/decrease likelihood of a behaviour occurring
e.g.. Phone confiscated for misbehaving

16

What is continuous reinforcement with an example

when the encouragement of a desired behaviour (reinforcement) occurs overtime a correct behaviour is performed
e.g.. get a lolly overtime you finish a question for homework

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What is continuous reinforcement essential for

essential for acquisition stage

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what is the weakness of continuous reinforcement

No effective for maintaining a maximal response rate that is long-term

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What is partial reinforcement

The encouragement of a desired behaviour (reinforcement) after some responses but not all

20

When should partial reinforcement be used and why

After the acquisition stage, because this tends to create stronger responses that last long term

21

Why does operant condition not work overtime?

Because it involves a CHOICE, and involves an active learner. Consequences guide but cannot control.

22

What are the three factors that makes operant conditioning effective`

Order of operation
Timing
Appropriateness

23

how does order of operation make OC effective

Consequence should always occur after behaviour to be effective

24

how does timing make OC effective

Most effective when consequence occurs immediately after behaviour. This ensures there is a link between the behaviour and consequence

25

How does appropriateness of reinforcement make operant conditioning effective

The reward must be valued, so they are motivated to behave correctly

26

How does the appropriateness of punishment make operant conditioning effective

Must be fair, so there is weakening of behaviour instead of resentment against punisher

27

what are the two factors involved in Operant conditioning?

Stimulus generalisations
stimulus discrimination

28

What is stimulus generalisation is operant conditioning

where the same behaviour is elected as a result of a similar (but not necessarily the same) antecedent to the original.

29

what are 2 examples of stimulus generalisation is OC

got praise for trying hard in one class, so you try hard in all your classes
took parasol for a headache and it took the headache away, so you take parasol now for back pain and cramps

30

What is stimulus discrimination

Where the behaviour is elected only from the same antecedent not similar ones

31

What is acquisition in operant conditioning

the establishment of a response through reinforcement/consequnce. Here behaviour and consequence is linked.

32

What is extinction in operant conditioning

The gradual decrease in the strength or rate of a learned response following consistent non-reinforcement of the behaviour

33

What is spontaneous recovery in operant conditioning

can occur after apparent extinction/rest period and involves the learner once again showing the behaviour in absence of the consequence. The response however is usually weaker and only short-term.

34

What is the social learning theory

focuses on learning which occurs through watching another person's actions and their consequences to guide future behaviour

35

wat is observational learning

the means of acquiring social learning theory and modelling behaviour.

36

What is modelling

When a person (model) is observed and then the observer demonstrates the learned behaviour

37

When is observational learning most seen

In children

38

is the learner active during observational learning

yes

39

What are the 5 key processes of observational learning

attention
retention
reproduction
motivation
reinforcement

40

What is attention

learner actively watches the model

41

what is retention

cognitive aspect of OL as learner stores mental representation of learner. Memory must be stored to reproduce behaviour.

42

What is reproduction

Learner has the mental and physical ability to perform the behaviour. They may not perform it t this time, but they must have the ability to convert mental representation into actions.

43

what is motivation

learner must want to imitate learned behaviour. This depends on whether the learner believes the consequence is desirable

44

What is reinforcement

if there is a prospect of a positive result to imitating the behaviour, it is likely the learner will do so.

45

What are the two types of motivation

intrinsic
extrinsic

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what is intrinsic motivation

motivation comes from within the learner, such as a personal desire driven by emotions

47

What is extrinsic motivation

motivation through environment, some form of reward offered

48

what are the 3 types of reinforcement

Self-reinforcement
external reinforcement
vicarious reinforcement

49

what is self-reinforcement

imitator receives satisfying consequences as a result of imitating models behaviour

50

what is external-reinforcement

receiving praise from another, this may be from the model or a 'third person'

51

what is vicarious reinforcement

positive consequences received to model or another imitator. Influences the likelihood of observer imitating