Flashcards in UNIT 3 - How do people learn and remember SAC 2 Deck (51):
Define operant conditioning
Operant conditioning is a learning process in which the likelihood of a behaviour occurring is determined by the consequences of that behaviour
What are two characteristics of operant conditioning
The learner is active
Form of voluntary learning
What does operant mean in operant conditioning
An operant in a response that occurs and acts (operates) on the environment to produce some sort of effect
What are the three phases of operant conditioning
What is the antecedent / discriminative stimulus
The stimulus that occurs before the behaviour stage that triggers/initiates the operant response.
What is behaviour stage of operant conditioning
Also known as operant response, is the voluntary response caused by the antecedent
What is the consequence stage of operant conditioning
The result of the behaviour, which determines the likelihood of the behaviour occurring again. There are two forms of consequence, reinforcement or punishment.
What are the two types of consequence
What does positive and negative mean in the context of operant conditioning
Positive: Giving something (applying)
Negative: Taking something away (remove)
What is reinforcement
When a desirable behaviour is encouraged with the view of strengthening it, thus increasing the likelihood of the behaviour occurring agin
What is positive reinforcement and give an example
When something desirable is given to strengthen the likelihood of a response
e.g. if you do your homework you get a treat
What is negative reinforcement and give an example
The removal of ab unpleasant/undesirable stimulus to strengthen the likelihood of a response
e.g. If you do your homework you don't have to do your chores
When an undesirable behaviour is discouraged in an aim to weaken the likelihood of the behaviour
what is punishment/positive punishment and give an example
When a n undesirable stimulus is given to weaken/decrease the likelihood of a behaviour occurring
e.g. yelling at child who has drawn on the bedroom walls
What is an example of negative punishment/response cost
A form of punishment were something desirable is removed to weaken/decrease likelihood of a behaviour occurring
e.g.. Phone confiscated for misbehaving
What is continuous reinforcement with an example
when the encouragement of a desired behaviour (reinforcement) occurs overtime a correct behaviour is performed
e.g.. get a lolly overtime you finish a question for homework
What is continuous reinforcement essential for
essential for acquisition stage
what is the weakness of continuous reinforcement
No effective for maintaining a maximal response rate that is long-term
What is partial reinforcement
The encouragement of a desired behaviour (reinforcement) after some responses but not all
When should partial reinforcement be used and why
After the acquisition stage, because this tends to create stronger responses that last long term
Why does operant condition not work overtime?
Because it involves a CHOICE, and involves an active learner. Consequences guide but cannot control.
What are the three factors that makes operant conditioning effective`
Order of operation
how does order of operation make OC effective
Consequence should always occur after behaviour to be effective
how does timing make OC effective
Most effective when consequence occurs immediately after behaviour. This ensures there is a link between the behaviour and consequence
How does appropriateness of reinforcement make operant conditioning effective
The reward must be valued, so they are motivated to behave correctly
How does the appropriateness of punishment make operant conditioning effective
Must be fair, so there is weakening of behaviour instead of resentment against punisher
what are the two factors involved in Operant conditioning?
What is stimulus generalisation is operant conditioning
where the same behaviour is elected as a result of a similar (but not necessarily the same) antecedent to the original.
what are 2 examples of stimulus generalisation is OC
got praise for trying hard in one class, so you try hard in all your classes
took parasol for a headache and it took the headache away, so you take parasol now for back pain and cramps
What is stimulus discrimination
Where the behaviour is elected only from the same antecedent not similar ones
What is acquisition in operant conditioning
the establishment of a response through reinforcement/consequnce. Here behaviour and consequence is linked.
What is extinction in operant conditioning
The gradual decrease in the strength or rate of a learned response following consistent non-reinforcement of the behaviour
What is spontaneous recovery in operant conditioning
can occur after apparent extinction/rest period and involves the learner once again showing the behaviour in absence of the consequence. The response however is usually weaker and only short-term.
What is the social learning theory
focuses on learning which occurs through watching another person's actions and their consequences to guide future behaviour
wat is observational learning
the means of acquiring social learning theory and modelling behaviour.
What is modelling
When a person (model) is observed and then the observer demonstrates the learned behaviour
When is observational learning most seen
is the learner active during observational learning
What are the 5 key processes of observational learning
What is attention
learner actively watches the model
what is retention
cognitive aspect of OL as learner stores mental representation of learner. Memory must be stored to reproduce behaviour.
What is reproduction
Learner has the mental and physical ability to perform the behaviour. They may not perform it t this time, but they must have the ability to convert mental representation into actions.
what is motivation
learner must want to imitate learned behaviour. This depends on whether the learner believes the consequence is desirable
What is reinforcement
if there is a prospect of a positive result to imitating the behaviour, it is likely the learner will do so.
What are the two types of motivation
what is intrinsic motivation
motivation comes from within the learner, such as a personal desire driven by emotions
What is extrinsic motivation
motivation through environment, some form of reward offered
what are the 3 types of reinforcement
what is self-reinforcement
imitator receives satisfying consequences as a result of imitating models behaviour
what is external-reinforcement
receiving praise from another, this may be from the model or a 'third person'