Flashcards in Unit 3 Soil Deck (48)
What are the three characteristics a wetland must have?
1. must be inundated 7.5% of the growing season
2. soil is wet enough to be classified as anoxic
3. hydrophytes are the dominant vegetation
What does it mean for soil to be anoxic?
to not have oxygen in it
Whats are two different adaptations of wetland plants?
-buttressed tree trunks
What is gleyed soil?
dark slimy nutrient rich soil with little oxygen
What are the three macronutrients?
nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium
What are the three miconutrients?
calcium, magnesium, sulfur
What is one soil additive that boosts all of the nutrients?
Name all of the agricultural BMPs.
grassed waterway, grade control structure, terrace, critical area planting, contour farming, crop residue management, crop rotation cover crop, vegetative filter strips, wind break
Why is there acid rain over large cities?
lots of fossil fuels are burned
What is dolomite?
a form of limestone used to neutralize the pH of acid rain
What are the two steps for BMPs of construction sites?
perimeter control and temporary stabilization
Name the layers of a landfill from bottom to top.
Clay, Plastic liner, gravel, sand, dirt, old cells, new cells
What does a leachate collection system do?
a collection system that collects water that has travelled through the landfill
Name the layers of soil from top to bottom.
Humus, Topsoil, Eluviation, Subsoil, Regolith, Bedrock
what are the bmp's for erosion
crop rotation: changing crops grown yearly
cover crop: small grain crops that reduce leaching of unused crop nutrients
contour farming: farming w/ row patterns around the hill
grassed waterways: shaping grass in a national drainage around crops, guides runoff on grass rather then tearing off soil
wind break: trees slow wind and water flow
grade control structure: wooden concrete/rock structure built across drainage way
terrace: an earthen embankment around a hillside that stops water flows and stores in or guides it safely
what is the scientific term for wetland soils
list the three characteristics that make a wetland
- soil is flooded
- soil is anoxic
- hydrophytes are dominant
what is the dominant factor of wetlands
the dominant factor is saturation with water
what is groundwater recharge
wetlands slowly release water from runoff into streams to refill streams
what is eutrophication
excessive richness and nutrients in water
what is anoxic
anoxic means the water is so dense with minerals that there is no oxygen
mineral and organic topsoil
mineral topsoil: made of sand, silt, clay, iron, and mangese
organic topsoil: deep layer of decaying matter
what is a tree knee
part of the root that rises above the water to bring oxygen to the roots
what are rhizomes
rhizomes are underground shoots for the parent to reproduce under stress
what is buttressed
buttressed means the base of the tree is widened for support because of wet soil
what is erosion
when sediment/soil is moved from its original place to a new one
4 agents of erosion
water, wind, ice, and gravity
9 signs of erosion
- bare spots on lawn
- tree roots showing above ground
- gully's begin to show
- fallen trees in stream channels
- silt build up
- muddy water and or stream in your driveway
- small rocks or stones become evident
- soil splashed on outside windows or walls
- stream channels getting deeper and wider