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Flashcards in Unit 3 Soil Deck (48)
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What are the three characteristics a wetland must have?

1. must be inundated 7.5% of the growing season
2. soil is wet enough to be classified as anoxic
3. hydrophytes are the dominant vegetation

1

What does it mean for soil to be anoxic?

to not have oxygen in it

2

Whats are two different adaptations of wetland plants?

-knees
-buttressed tree trunks

3

What is gleyed soil?

dark slimy nutrient rich soil with little oxygen

4

What are the three macronutrients?

nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium

5

What are the three miconutrients?

calcium, magnesium, sulfur

6

What is one soil additive that boosts all of the nutrients?

animal manure

7

Name all of the agricultural BMPs.

grassed waterway, grade control structure, terrace, critical area planting, contour farming, crop residue management, crop rotation cover crop, vegetative filter strips, wind break

8

Why is there acid rain over large cities?

lots of fossil fuels are burned

9

What is dolomite?

a form of limestone used to neutralize the pH of acid rain

10

What are the two steps for BMPs of construction sites?

perimeter control and temporary stabilization

11

Name the layers of a landfill from bottom to top.

Clay, Plastic liner, gravel, sand, dirt, old cells, new cells

12

What does a leachate collection system do?

a collection system that collects water that has travelled through the landfill

14

Name the layers of soil from top to bottom.

AOEBCR
Humus, Topsoil, Eluviation, Subsoil, Regolith, Bedrock

15

what are the bmp's for erosion

crop rotation: changing crops grown yearly
cover crop: small grain crops that reduce leaching of unused crop nutrients
contour farming: farming w/ row patterns around the hill
grassed waterways: shaping grass in a national drainage around crops, guides runoff on grass rather then tearing off soil
wind break: trees slow wind and water flow
grade control structure: wooden concrete/rock structure built across drainage way
terrace: an earthen embankment around a hillside that stops water flows and stores in or guides it safely

16

anaerobic

without oxygen

17

what is the scientific term for wetland soils

hydric soils

18

list the three characteristics that make a wetland

- soil is flooded
- soil is anoxic
- hydrophytes are dominant

19

what is the dominant factor of wetlands

the dominant factor is saturation with water

20

what is groundwater recharge

wetlands slowly release water from runoff into streams to refill streams

21

what is eutrophication

excessive richness and nutrients in water

22

what is anoxic

anoxic means the water is so dense with minerals that there is no oxygen

23

mineral and organic topsoil

mineral topsoil: made of sand, silt, clay, iron, and mangese
organic topsoil: deep layer of decaying matter

24

what is a tree knee

part of the root that rises above the water to bring oxygen to the roots

25

what are rhizomes

rhizomes are underground shoots for the parent to reproduce under stress

26

what is buttressed

buttressed means the base of the tree is widened for support because of wet soil

27

what is erosion

when sediment/soil is moved from its original place to a new one

28

4 agents of erosion

water, wind, ice, and gravity

29

9 signs of erosion

- bare spots on lawn
- tree roots showing above ground
- gully's begin to show
- fallen trees in stream channels
- silt build up
- muddy water and or stream in your driveway
- small rocks or stones become evident
- soil splashed on outside windows or walls
- stream channels getting deeper and wider

30

natural factors of acid precipitation

-the combo of natural CO2 levels in earths atmosphere
-eruption of volcanoes