Flashcards in Unit 3 - Tourism Deck (22)
What are the 5 types of leisure breaks?
Beach holidays, activity holidays, short city breaks, health tourism and heritage/cultural tourism
What are the social causes for the increased global tourism?
Increase in leisure time - Longer paid holidays/ shorter working week + ageing populations means early retirement with good pensions
Package holidays - Thomas Cook, Theme Park: Alton Towers, they are all inclusive
Developments in ICT - Easier booking with internet
What are the economic causes for the increased global tourism?
Transport developments - planes are larger and faster, Channel tunnel, Improvements in ferry travel
Greater wealth - People in MEDCs have more disposable income and fewer children. There are also more two-income families.
What are the political causes for the increased global tourism?
Relaxation of national boundaries in the EU
Economy boosting enocurages governments to use tourism as a source of income
Butler model (exploration)
A small number of tourists visit a destination, there are no impacts on the area, there are physical and cultural attractions
Butler model (Involvement)
Visitor numbers increase, hotels are built, Transport is improved.
Butler model (Development)
Visitor numbers continue to increase, there are still mainly physical and cultural attractions, some human attractions are being built, the host community are more involved with tourism.
Butler model (Consolidation)
The number of tourists continues to increase but not as quickly. Transport routes and access have been improved. Most locals now work in the tourist industry; local economies now depend on it. There are many facilities for the tourists which are beginning to impact the environment.
Butler model (Stagnation)
The facilities and services become old and run. The negative. The negative impacts on the environment are becoming more obvious. Visitor numbers are declining. The host community begin to resent the tourists.
Tourist numbers start to decline dramatically and many people lose their jobs.
Butler model (Rejuvenation)
This usually involves investing a lot of money to improve to improve facilities and amenities. The resorts need to made up to date.
Blackpool in exploration
The first guest house is opened by Edward Whiteside and only the gentry came to visit. (1735)
Blackpool in involvement
Henry Banks opened the Lane's End Hotel which was Blackpool's first hotel. In 1819 the railway line was completed.
Blackpool in development
Central Pier opened with open-air dancing and a new promenade which connected different parts of Blackpool together. (1870)
Blackpool in consolidation
Many attractions were built such as the Grand Theatre, Church Street and the Blackpool illuminations were first switched on in 1912. (1912)
Blackpool in stagnation
The sandcastle and Blackpool Zoo opened but visitor numbers began to decline. (1972)
Blackpool in decline
Annual day visits declined from 7.4 million to 3.9 million (1986)
Blackpool in rejuvenation
Around 11,000,000 people visited Blackpool (2004).
Social impacts of tourism
Zanzibar - Offence is caused to the Muslim locals by the different moral codes of the Western tourists
Dubai - Business people have caused issues with their western clothing
Malham - Malham is a second home location where the tourists do not use the local shops, schools or church but have created a more frequent bus service to the town of Skipton in the summer months
The Maldives - Tourist money has been used to improve education and services however tourists only mix with the tourist workers not the locals who live on the 'home islands' where tourists are not allowed.
Economic impacts of tourism
Peru - Generates $40 million a year
Zanzibar - The $220 million a year has a positive effect on the GDP of the country
Cyprus - 20% of the GDP is from tourism. This is the money made from tourists buying accommodation, food and drink but the multiplier effect make them more money.
Environmental impacts of tourism
Cyprus - Lara Beach is now protected so that Green and Hawksbill Turtles can lay their eggs
Zanzibar - Stone Town is now a world heritage site and as such is protected from tourist development - it can only take place if it is to conserve the buildings in the town
The Maldives - Coral reef destruction from sewage and tourist swimmers has lead to a decrease in fish numbers and species.
Dorset - The parking money from Lulworth Cove has lead to the improvement of walkways, the building of a heritage centre that teaches tourists about the area and has been used to improve the signs in the area.