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Describe the global population change

The world's population has grown very rapidly over the last 200 years from 1 billion in 1800 to the present population of over 7 billion. The growth of this population is uneven with the majority of growth coming from Asia and Africa where the death rate has dramatically fallen but the birth rate has kept high.


What is the measurement of birth and death rate?

Average babies born 1000 people per year
Average people die 1000 people per year


Describe how the birth and death rate combine to create the rate of population growth.

High birth rate + Low death rate = Population grows fast
Medium birth rate +medium death rate = Population is stable
Low birth rate + medium/high death rate = Population falls
Medium birth rate +low death rate = Population grows slowly


What is meant by carrying capacity?

The maximum number of people that can be supported by the resources and technology of the given area. The greater the carrying capacity, the higher the population density will be.


What are the characteristics of the demographic transition model?

Stage 1: Birth rate and death rate are high, population fluctuates but stays relatively stable (UK 1750)
Stage 2: Death rate starts to fall but birth rate stays high, the population has a very rapid increase (UK 1780-1880)
Stage 3: Birth rate begins to fall, the death rate continues to fall but more slowly, the population increases but less rapidly (UK 1880-1950)
Stage 4: Birth rate and death rate are low. Very slow population increase (UK post 1950)
Stage 5: Both birth rate and death rate are low but the death rate is higher so the population slowly decreases (Current Russian population)


What is the distribution of population density in China?

The west of the country is sparsely populated as the Atai Mountains are too wet and cold to grow crops. The west of the country is sparsely populated as the Gobi desert is too dry to grow crops. The east of the country is densely populated along the coastal areas due to good trade links and China's 1970s coastal economic development scheme. The east of the country is densely populated as people live along the fertile flood plains of rivers such as the Yangtze. The level of economic development increases from east to west, as does the population density.


What is the distribution of population density in the UK?

Sparsely populated in the Highlands of Scotland as the wet mountainous environment is too cold to grow crops. High population density in Aberdeen because of the oil industry that is pumped down from the north sea. Densely populated along the south coast as retired people move here due to the warmer climate, e.g Brighton. Densely populated area in South Wales due to the range of services available when the settlement developed. Central Wales is cold, hilly, wet and remote so it is hard to transport goods and is therefore is sparsely populated. Major cities are located on the coastal cities as the historical inertia states that older settlements needed a water supply and access to trade and transport.


Why did China need to reduce its birth rate?

In 1979, a quarter of the worlds population lived in China with 66% about to enter the birthing age. The "one child policy" was therefore brought in to promote economic growth and improve the living conditions of the majority of the population. If you were given a "one child certificate" then you are awarded certain privileges.


What are the incentives of the one child policy?

Cash bonuses, longer maternity leave, free education, free medical care, better child care and preferential housing arrangements.


What are the disincentives of the one child policy?

Couples required to pledge to not have more children, could be fired for having more children, hefty fines for those who have more children, people are monitored by the "granny police", young people are asked to postpone marriage, women with unauthorized pregnancies were pressured to undergo sterilization and abortions.


China in recent years

In recent years the rules have been relaxed and in rural areas (where 70% of the population lives) a second child is generally allowed after 5 years


Why did Singapore need to increase its birth rate?

In the late 1980s, the government realized they would not have enough workers and in 1987 introduced the "three or more policy". The policy has not been very successful and in 2008 there was only 1.26 babies born per woman compared to the 5.8 million in the 1960s


What are the incentives of the three or more policy?

Parents receive a gift of $3000 for the first and second child. A cash gift of $6000 for the third and fourth child. A children development account can be setup where the government will match the savings for up to $6000 for the second child and $12000 for the third and fourth. Three days of paternity leave for the father. Five days of paid childcare leave a year. More children means bigger flat upgrades. Couples receive $95 a month for a maid for children under 12


Disincentives of the three or more policy

Couples with only one or no children can only buy a three-room flat. Women with fewer than three children can't undergo sterilization without a counseling course.


What are the advantages of a youthful population?

Children can look after their parents so less money needs to spent on the elderly. There is a large, active workforce available for economic growth. Disease among children is widespread which leads to death due to the lack of doctors.


What are the disadvantages of a youthful population?

It puts large strains on the governments economy to provide for the masses of children with healthcare, education and food. In many countries education is not free which leads to unskilled workers and street beggars.


What are the advantages of an ageing population?

Elderly provide an important role in the community by providing services and expertise such as in charity shops. The larger proportion of retired people means their is a growth in the leisure industry as they have more free time. Unemployment rates will be low as there are more elderly. Creates the 'grey pound' industry.


What are the disadvantages of an ageing population

In places such as the UK it is becoming increasingly difficult to provide state-funded pensions. Greater demand for health care and support services. The number of residential care homes will increase dramatically. Care homes are expensive. The amount of money spent on education might have to be cut to finance the elderly. With people living longer there is a large demand on housing using up large amounts of land.