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What is a residential settlement?

A major function of this settlement is to give people a place to live. They are normally sited near larger cities and towns where the inhabitants work. Another function of a residential settlement is to provide for the elderly and retired, the south coast of England have many of these settlements, for example Eastbourne.


What is a Administrative settlement?

The main function of many settlements is to be a administrative centre. These centres are often county towns that employ large amounts of civil servants and are centres for local government. For example, Newbury in Berkshire.


What is a market centre settlement?

A market centre's main function is to provide services for the local area. They are often found in fertile farming areas where in the past farmers would have bought their produce to sell in the town. These settlements have good transport links and many were centred on a bridging point over a river.


What is an industrial settlement?

The main function of this settlement in the past was to provide jobs in the secondary industry. They were located on coalfields and had good access to railways and canals for transport. Many of them were situated in north Staffordshire, such as Kidsgrove near Birmingham.


What is a strategic settlement?

These settlements were built in locations that used physical geography to protect themselves, for example:
On top of hills (Windsor castle)
On the inside of meander bends (Warkworth)
Beside a gap in a range of hills
On an island in a river


What is a tourist resort settlement?

These settlements developed with the arrival of railways. Some developed on the coasts so that the population could visit the seaside (Blackpool and Brighton). Others developed around spa towns such as Bath. More recently areas with national parks have become tourist resorts and major cities are now tourist resorts as people visit the historic sites (London and Rome).


Describe how the functions of Aberfan in South Wales changed over time.

An agricultural settlement grew in the bottom of the valley close to the River Taff about 5 miles from Merthyr Tydfil. Merthyr Vale coal mine opened in 1875. This changed the function of the settlement to an industrial settlement. There were still farmers but the majority of the population worked in the mine. In 1989 the coal mine closed and the town became a residential settlement. It is a commuter village with the people who live there working in local towns and villages such as Merthyr Tydfil. It is also a retirement settlement as the population has its largest population cohort of elderly people. There are still a few agricultural farms but it is mostly residential.


What are the main causes of counter-urbanisation?

1. Urban areas are becoming less pleasant places to live due to an increase of traffic, pollution and crime.
2. An improvement of transportation networks and an increase in car ownership has meant people can live further from their workplace.
3. There has been an increase in the number of people working from home due to technological improvements.
4. There is an ageing population and people often move to the countryside to retire.
5. Business parks on the edge of the cities mean that people do not have to commute into the city to work and therefore can live in rural areas close by.


What are the negative effects of counter-urbanisation on rural areas?

There can be conflict between locals and 'newcomers'. Many of the migrants still work in urban areas therefore the commuting to work causes pollution and congestion. House prices in rural areas may rise as demand increases which causes problems for the local people who can no longer afford a house in their local area. Many of the migrants do not support local businesses and do their shopping in urban areas where they work. The traditions of villages are not valued by newcomers. Villages become ghost towns during the day. Many village church parishes have been amalgamated as the 'newcomers' do not go to church.


What are the positive effects of counter-urbanisation of rural areas?

Local schools stay open due to an increase in pupils. Some local services are supported, such as public houses and builders. Old derelict farm buildings are turned into habitable dwellings which adds to the aesthetic value and community well being.


Describe how counter-urbanisation affected the town of Austrey in Warwickshire

People moved out of Birmingham and the town of Tamworth into this village in the 70s, the population then grew to 1000 in 2001 from 300 in 1961. The environment has changed as multiple housing estates have been built on farm land such as St Nicholas Close and Elms Drive. There used to be 18 farms but only 2 are left. The village school has opened on a new site with 120 children compared to its 16 in 1961. The village pub, 'The bird in Hand' is thriving. Many of the people who live on the new estates work in Birmingham and most families have 2 cars but most do not use the local shop.


What are the demographic changes occurring in remote rural areas?

The population develops an older structure as all age bands under 40 decline and there are fewer young children.


What are the economic changes occurring in remote rural areas?

Funding of public services such as waste treatment and water as the large number of elderly do not contribute incomes to the local councils. The economy of the area also decreases as less money is going into the economy as fewer people of working age live there.


What are the environmental changes occurring in remote rural areas?

Buildings become derelict and there are signs of neglect which make the area unappealing.


What are the social changes occurring in remote rural areas?

The population living in remote rural areas have seen a decline in service provision. In 2001 there were 600,000 people living in remote rural areas of which 45% did not live within 4km of a doctor's surgery, post office and were without a bus service. The situation will worsen as post-offices close due to not being profitable. In Cornwall 25% and in Devon 22% of post offices are set to close, the the county average for the UK is 18%. Many primary schools are also closing within remote rural areas such as Satterthwaite and Rusland School and Lowick School, both near Ulverston in the Lake District in 2006.


What are the main two reasons for land use change in urban areas?

The UK increased demand for housing and the process of de-industrialisation.


What are the social factors for the increase in demand for housing in the UK?

People now marry later in life (In 2010 the average was 30 whereas in 1960 it was 24). People are having fewer children which mean smaller houses and flats are being built. There has also been a rise in the number of divorces which means that a family are spilt, living in two different dwellings. Many people now live on their own or with their spouse until they are in their 70s or 80s meaning more houses are needed for the younger generation.


What are the economic factors for the increase in demand for housing in the UK?

The population is wealthier therefore younger people can rent flats instead of staying at home. Until recently people were encouraged to buy their own properties because 100% mortgages were available.


What are the political factors for the increase in demand for housing in the UK?

The population of the UK is increasing (predicted rise of 4.1 million between 2001 and 2021. The government has promised that 3 million new homes will be built by 2020, with the growth in certain areas of the country including Bracknell. There has been a large influx of EU nationals since the relaxation of border regulations.


What is brownfield/greenfield site renewal and redevelopment?

Derelict and abandoned buildings due to
de-industrialistation are converted for a new use, such as housing (renewal) or are knocked down and new ones built (re-development). In the UK this has led to new housing, shopping and entertainment facilities being build all over some of the most run-down and derelict areas.


What is an example of brownfield site redevelopment?

A large site in Norwich comprising 17 hectares is located south-east of the city centre on the banks of the River Wensum, close to the railway station and the football ground at Carrow Road. The site has been redeveloped over a number of years into a entertainment complex including a 14-screen cinema, a large shopping centre and over 200 residential units.


What is an example of greenfield site redevelopment?

Bracknell in Berkshire is seeing significant growth with a large new housing development in the west of the town being built on a greenfield site. Peacock farm is situated next to the A329M and is close to the M4 for easy access. The development includes 14,000 new homes, 91 acres of country parkland, a doctor's surgery and two primary schools.


What are the advantages of brownfield sites?

Planning permission is easy to get as the government is actively encouraging the use of these areas. Infrastructure, such as gas, electricity and water is already present. Sites are easier to market because of access to facilities and entertainment. Lessens urban sprawl.


What are the disadvantages of building on brownfield sites?

Needs an environmental survey which is costly and time consuming. The sites need to be cleared and de-contaminated which adds to the construction costs. Cities may have social problems such as anti-social behaviour and crime as well as higher levels of pollution and congestion which makes it harder to market. Land costs are higher as it is closer to the city centre.


What are the advantages of building on greenfield sites?

Has never been occupied so developers can build as they wish. Plenty of space for car parking and landscaping. Cheaper land prices due to being further from the city centre. Lower construction costs as buildings don't need to be cleared or re-built. The pleasant environment makes it easier to market. Access to the development is easier as roads are not congested.


What are the disadvantages of building on greenfield sites?

Infrastructure will not be present. Urban sprawl uses up green spaces on the edge of urban areas. It is more difficult to get planning permission as the government tends to be against it. Building disrupts natural habitats and wildlife. Living on the edge of the city may increase the commute for people. People may not want to live away from the city centre because of their social life.


What are the reasons for the migration of people from rural to urban areas in LICs?

Lack of jobs in rural areas due to mechanisation and population growth. Salaries are lower in rural areas. The perception of a better life, including education. The development of TNCs and other industry providing jobs in urban areas.


What are the reasons for the higher increase in population in urban ares in LICs?

The youth of the migrants of which most of them are of child-bearing age. The lack of contraception or knowledge about contraception. Higher life expectancy due to better living conditions and diet. Better medical facilities in urban areas, infant mortality is lower in urban areas in LICs.


Effects of rapid growth on a LIC urban area - Cairo (Air pollution)

Air pollution from the 2 million cars and the 200,000 motorbikes. 37% of residents in the industrial quarter Shoubra al-Kheima suffer from lung problems. The sun's rays are blocked by smog on the most polluted days meaning many children suffer from vitamin D deficiency.


Effects of rapid growth on a LIC urban area - Cairo (Land pollution)

The inhabitants of Cairo produce 10,000 tonnes of solid waste a day. Only 60% is collected, the rest is left to rot. Large toxic stockpiles of harzardous waste, as much as 50,000 tonnes, from industry which has accumulated in Helwan, Shoubra and Embaba.