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1

what are the actions of anti-platelet drugs

they are used when overactive platelets pose long-term risks for hypercoagulability
they reduce platelet aggregation
alter the formation of platelets

2

what are the prototypes of anti-platelet drugs

Aspirin, Clopidogrel

3

Name the anticoagulants prototype

Warfarin, Heparin, Antithrombin, Argatroban, Bivalirudin

4

what is the actions of heparin?

Anticoagulant, prevents the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
works in the last stages of the clotting cascade

5

Heparin
-route of administration
-metabolism
-excretion

IV or SC
Liver
kidneys

6

What is the difference between Intrinsic pathway and extrinsic pathway?

Intrinsic Pathway- converts prothrombin to thrombin to seal system
Extrinsic Pathway- clots the blood that has leaked out of the vascular system

7

name 2 blood disorders and indications?

Thromboembolic Disorder
-a condition that predispose a person to the formation of clots and emboli
Hemorrhagic Disorder
-disorder in which excessive bleeding occurs

8

Clopidogrel

inhibits platelet aggregation
Used to reduce atherosclerotic events
Administered: oral
Metabolism: liver Protein bound
Assess for behaviours that would increased bleeding
Nursing Diagnosis
-Risk for Injury: Increased Risk for Bleeding
related to decreased platelet aggregation from
drug therapy
Desired outcome: The patient will suffer no injury
related to bleeding while on clopidogrel
-Risk for Nausea related to adverse effects of
clopidogrel
Desired outcome: Nausea and GI distress will not be
extreme enough to warrant stopping clopidogrel therapy
Maximizing therapeutic effects
-Ensure that clopidogrel is administered routinely to achieve its maximum therapeutic effects
-Minimizing adverse effects
-Take clopidogrel with food to decrease GI problems
-Remember that severe neutropenia is a potential risk

9

Name blood disorders that are treated with clotting factors?

-Hemophilia
Genetic lack of clotting factors that leaves the patient
vulnerable to excessive bleeding with any injury
-Liver Disease
Clotting factors and proteins needed for clotting are not
produced
-Bone Marrow Disorders
Platelets are not formed in sufficient quantity to be
effective

10

name a clotting factor

antihemophilic

11

Antihemophilic

-Replace clotting factors that are either genetically
missing or low in a particular type of hemophilia
-Prevent blood loss from injury or surgery and to treat
bleeding disorders
- Replace normal clotting factors and are processed as
such by the body
Administered: IV
-Contraindications and precautions
Hypersensitivity to mouse protein
-Adverse effects
Anaphylaxis, urticaria, nausea, and chills
Risk for Injury, Hemorrhage, related to
deficiency of clotting factor VIII
Instruct patients and families to observe for bleeding
from gums, skin, urine, stools, or emesis

12

Name factors that are essential for RBC production

Adequate Amounts of Iron
To form hemoglobin rings to carry the oxygen
-Minute Amounts of Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid
To form a supporting structure that can survive being
battered through blood vessels for 120 days
-Essential Amino Acids and Carbohydrates
To complete the hemoglobin rings, cell membrane, and
basic structure

13

name the 3 types of Anemia

-Megaloblastic Anemia
Insufficient folic acid or vitamin B12 to create the
stromal structure needed in a healthy RBC
-Iron Deficiency Anemia
A negative iron balance occurs
Pernicious Anemia
-The gastric mucosa cannot produce intrinsic factor and
vitamin B12 cannot be absorbed