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Flashcards in Unit 6 Deck (107):

What does massage therapy target for manipulation?

Fascia of the human body


Where can pressure from massage therapy be applied to?

Muscles, tendons, ligaments, bones, disks

neural, blood and lymph, visceral organs and glands


What can Fascial entrapment produce in the human body?

believed to cause entrapment of neural structure, producing a wide range of symptoms


What can massage be used to accomplish?

manipulating the connective tissues, affecting the fascia by altering it's ground substance, elongating shortened tissues, and improving the biochemical environment of the cells


What is the essential theory of massage therapy? (hint: also known as the rule of there artery)

the tissues of the body will operate at optimum levels when arterial, venous and lymph supply are unimpeded.


What happens when arterial, venous, or lymph flow becomes impeded in massage therapy? How does massage therapy help this?

muscle tightness and changes in the nearby skin and fascia will happen, resulting in pain.

Massage therapy helps reestablish proper fluid dynamics in the body at the skin, muscle and fascia


What are some contraindications to massage therapy?

skin infections
acute inflammation
varicose veins
immunocompromised states


What parts of the body must massage therapy be careful around?

carotid artery
superclavicular fossa
posterior knee
femoral triangle
abdominal cavity


How are the techniques of massage generally applied?

applied in the direction of the heart to stimulate increased venous and lymphatic drainage. Muscles are addressed in groups with only one being treated before advancing to the next one


How is massage usually performed?

Massage is usually performed with a powder, oil or other type of lubricant to the skin

The patient lies prone, supine or laterally on a table or seated in a chair


What is important during the massage therapy?

Verbal communication between the therapist and patient as the practitioner will use the cues given from the patient as a guide during treatment


What are the visceral effects from massage?

General vasoactivity in somatic tissues and regulated by the ANS

blood pressure and heart rate usually decrease and observed


What are the five techniques of the swedish massage?

All are of a passive variety: effleurage, petrissage, friction, tapotement, vibration.


How can variation of massage techniques be used for a different outcome?

effleurage applied at a moderate pace with lubrication increases blood flow and lymphatic drainage

effleurage applied with no lubrication at a very slow pace produces a shearing force that focuses on changing the ground substance of the fascia


describe effleurage massage technique

most frequently used to begin a treatment

a gliding stroke applied with light pressure

used to modulate arterial supply and venous and lymphatic drainage

pressure variable: very light affects the skins; deeper affects superficial fascia, deepest the deep fascia and so on

thumbs, finger or entire palm used

also used at the beginning to diagnosis problem areas

Long strokes are often used at the end especially for sleep


Describe petrissage massage technique

more aggressive than effleurage

uses thumb and fingers to lift and milk underlying fascia in a kneading motion

used to increase venous and lymphatic drainage of the muscle and to break up adhesions

can be considered direct or indirect depending on motion


describe friction massage technique

most deeply applied massage technique

tips of fingers or thumbs, or heel of hand if fatigued or deeper pressure needed used in circular and back and fourth motion.

used when production of heat desired, adhesions are present, or when target is too deep for petrissage

direction of applied technique determines if it is direct or indirect


describe tapotement massage technique

involves rapid, repeated blows of varying strength

uses sides or palms of hands, hands cupped or fists

occasionally, rapid pinching is done

used to stimulate arterial circulation to the area

can also be used to inhibit reflexive spasms

is not applied over the areas of the kidneys or on the chest, any recent incisions or areas of inflammation


describe the vibration massage technique

one of the most difficult techniques to master

modern form employs a mechanical vibrator

when hands used, a light, rhythmic, quivering effect is used

brisk snapping across areas such as the erector spine may also be considered vibration, similar to strumming a guitar string


Where can massage be practiced?

Massage is usually practised in private clinics and spas, but can also be practised by nurses more informally such as by giving a patient a back rub


How can massage differ? (Stimulating or sedating)

Can be both stimulating and sedating; techniques can be vigorous or gentle


What limbs can massage therapists use?

their hands, feet, elbows, and knees to exert friction and pressure. Alternately, they may use instruments or machines.


Describe the massage chair

usually includes a face rest or head cradle so that clients will be relatively straight while face down.


What are other elements of a massage session? What does music accomplish?

may include environmental factors such as lighting, a soundproof room, and particular colour of the room.

Music helps the client relax and can help the therapist maintain a rhythm with the massage movement.


What is the scope and practice of massage therapists?

manual treatment of soft tissues for general relaxation or for improving and maintaining health; general assessment; and may include hydrotherapy and aromatherapy.


What is not included in the scope and practice of massage therapy?

it does not include diagnosis of illness or injury, prognosis, or spinal or joint manipulations.


What does massage education include to overcome the notion of touch?

massage therapy education includes education on personal and professional boundaries such as the consequence of inappropriate behaviour or sexual misconduct, and how to terminate a session when a client behaves inappropriately.


What are the contraindications of massage therapy?

burns, skin infections, eczema, open wounds, bone fractures, and advanced osteoporosis. Caution should be shown with patients with cancer and those who are pregnant or who feel uncomfortable with close contact.


What is the training program like for massage therapists in Canada>

therapists must undergo a vigorous training program which consists of a 2200-hour curriculum. After successfully completing this program the massage therapist may use the designation Registered Massage Therapist (RMT or MT). The parent body of massage therapists in Canada is the Massage Therapist Alliance of Canada.


Is massage covered?

not under provincial health care but may be under private insurance


What is the overall evidence for massage therapy?

Massage therapy resembles several other types of CAM therapies in that bold claims of effectiveness are frequently made but with little in the way of supporting evidence based on good quality research studies.


what conditions is massage therapy effective for?

constipation, back pain, anxiety, depression, and stress.


Is massage therapy recommended?

Given the few risks involved when performed by a responsible, well-trained practitioner, it may be worth considering.


What is massage therapy's effect on well-being?

Given its relaxing effects, massage therapy may have some, albeit non-specific, beneficial influence on the well-being of most patients


What si the difference between trigger points and acupuncture points?

Nothing, they are the same


What are Ah Shi points?

They do not appear on the tradition acupuncture map, but represent spontaneously tender points that when pressed, they say "oh yes"

They are treated as honorary acupuncture points


Summarize Langevin's research for acupuncture in five topics

Most acupuncture points lie directly over areas of fascial cleavage

Connective tissue is a communication system

The existence of a network of fibroblasts in the loose connective tissue may support body-wide cellular signaling

cells change their shape and behaviour following stretching


What is acupressure?

using fingers on acupuncture points to apply pressure. Acupuncture without needles


What is acupressure based on?

The meridian system of 12 major channels of qi. Although the channels are named for specific organs they do not necessarily correspond to the anatomical body part.


What is Jin Shin do?

The way of the compassionate spirit

A form of acupressure where the fingers are used to apply deep pressure to hypersensitive acupuncture points.

Is a synthesis of taoist philosophy, psychology, breathing and acupressure techniques

Believes in the body being linked to the mind and spirit and tender points found represent emotional trauma


What is the theory behind Jin Shin do

believes various stimuli cause energy to accumulate in points.

repeated stress causes a layering of tension known as armouring

Most painful point termed local point. Other points are termed distal points

Deep pressure is used to release the tension

Overall effect is to reestablish the flow of energy in the body and balance the body


What is the therapeutic pulse?

A feeling after 1 or 2 minutes of the muscle relaxing and followed by a pulsation. The patient reports decreased sensitivity at the point afterwards


What are the five element sin chinese medicine?

fire, water, earth, wood and metal


What are the five elements in ayurveda medicine?

space (ether), air, fire, water and earth


What is Prana in ayurvedic manipulation?

the life force (qi) that flows through the body and permeates the organs and tissues, concentrating at points called chakras


Describe the theoretical basis of constitutions for Ayurvedic manipulation

humans are based on the relative proportions of the mind, body and spirit, and the five elements (space, earth, air, fire and water).

Three constitutions (doshas) are recognized: vata, pitta, and kapha


describe the constitution vata

combination of air and space and is reflected in the kinetic energy


describe the constitution pitta

combines fire and water and reflects a balance between kinetic and potential energy


describe the constitution kapha

combines earth and water and represents potential energy


What is Tamasic touch in ayurvedic manipulation?

Strong and solid, rooted in the earth

Application is fast and time is needed for mind and spirit to catch up

corresponds to high velocity, low-amplitude technique, tapotement or rubbing and thumb rocking


What is rajasic touch in ayurvedic manipulation?

lower and used to expand and integrate initial manual exploration and findings

more in resonance with the mind and spirit

effleurage and myofascial release may correspond to this type of movement


what is static touch in ayurvedic manipulation?

application is very slow and gentle

follows the intention of the mind and spirit


How is a massage-oriented ayurvedic manipulation applied?

different oils or lubricants are used according to the individual and problem to be treated

patient lays prone or supine, or sitting up

strokes are applied either toward or away from the heart in a specific sequence

Sometimes may use feet where practitioner stands above patient who is lying processing oils

Techniques can be direct or indirect


What is energy work?

Refers to the techniques that have been developed either as part of ancient tradition or as recently discovered methods where practitioner manipulates patients bioenergy


What is manual lymph drainage?

incorporates the application of light pressure to the skin and superficial fascia in a specific pattern to encourage an increase in the movement of lymph


What are lymphatic pumps?

rhythmic techniques applied over organs such as the liver and spleen, to increase drainage.


Why is the thoracic diaphragm used as a lymphatic pump?

increases abdominal pressure which pumps the nearby cisterna chyli, a dilated portion of the lymphatic duct that serves as a temporary reservoir for lymph


How are the stories for lymph drainage different from effleurage?

Effleurage applied reply can inhibit the flow of lymph. Using light pressure, lymph drainage applies a rhythmic stroke creating a short pulling action on the skin and superficial fascia. A turgoring effect encourages the movement of lymph into the capillary


Where is lymph drainage therapy useful?

Useful to encourage overall health and useful in post surgical and post trauma care. The edema with sprains and sports injuries can be reduced quickly with lymph drainage.


What are the most popular methods of lymph drainage?

Vodder method and Chikly methods


What is Shiatsu Massage?

Means finger pressure and developed as a synthesis of acupuncture and anma

Although strong in energy medicine, it is more similar to massage than energy work

It employs the meridian or channel concept of the human body

Points are referred to tsubos (vase)


What does shiatsu theory state?

When a channel becomes blocked, the tsubos along it can express kyo or weak energy or a jitsu (strong, high vibration, heat, closed)


What are the hands in shiatsu used for?

diagnosis, treatment and maintence


What is a typical shiatsu treatment?

The practitioner uses acupressure to open or close jitsu or kyo tsubos using the thumb, elbow, knee positioned perpendicular to the skin of the receiver. The body part used and duration depend on the state of tsubo.


What is sports massage?

tool for prevention and recovery from injuries and for enhancing performance and increasing skills in a sport


What are sports massage practitioners responsible for?

assessing the tissues using manual techniques, but must also consider the habits of use during the sport and determine which dysfunctional mechanics are actually useful adjustments for the athlete.Finally, they incorporate particular strategies and treatments and prevention of injury depending on what is discovered


What is important for sports massage therapists to understand?

the biomechanics of the sport and the ways the body may adapt to the stress.


How are sport massage techniques differ?

Will differ pre event to warm up the athlete compared to post event. Also differ in off season or for injured players


What are massage therapy practice settings?

Variety of clinical settings, spas, private practices and sport arenas.

hospitals, physical therapy clinics, rehabilitation centres, offices of physicians, osteopaths, chiropractors, dentist offices.


How does experience of a massage therapist dictate treatment?

Experience is essential in determining which techniques will and will not be used. Application choices may also be based on the setting, and will differ in a hospital setting compared to a spa setting


Can massage be used on paediatric, geriatrics and adolescences?



What is the value of massage therapy?

prevention and proactive general maintenance yet these claims are unproven


What does massage therapy fall under for two categories?

hose that claim to work by direct physical action, such as conventional massage therapy (Swedish massage) and lymph drainage

those that claim to work by way of affecting meridians, such as acupressure and shiatsu


how have acupressure and shiatsu managed to survive for so long and, indeed, to gain many followers in western countries?

Placebo and acupressure and shiatsu may bring about benefit by being a form of massage


What has a number of research cited about shiatsu?

There was insufficient evidence both in quantity and quality on shiatsu in order to provide consensus for any specific health condition or symptom


What can acupressure be used for?

Strongest evidence was for pain (particularly dysmenorrhoea, lower back and labour), post-operative nausea and vomiting. Additionally quality evidence found improvements in sleep in institutionalised elderly.


What does shiatsu require?

a disciplined approach, constant practice, and continuing study to develop in-depth understanding. However the basic practice is so simple that anyone can do it


What does shiatsu training emphasize?

most important to be in touch with what is going on under the hand. When reassure is applied, they should react and follow up based on intuition


How is intuition enhanced in shiatsu?

being in harmony with nature achieved by following the principles of nature or being in yin and yang


Why should clients wear cotton to a shiatsu massage therapy?

Believed that synthetic fabrics block or interrupt the natural transmission of energy between the caregiver and recipient. They believe that everything is energy and unnatural substances produce unnatural energies


How should the shiatsu room be for clients?

simple, clean, and quiet.


How do shiatsu sessions begin?

A thorough history is taken. Question relate to sleep patterns, lifestyle, eating habits and work history. This is used to uncover risk factors


What is reflexology?

Focused pressure technique directed at the hands or feet usually. Based on zones and reflexes in different parts of the body that correspond to all organs.

Stimulation of these reflexes helps the body to correct, strengthen and reinforce itself by returning to a state of homeostasis

North american reflexology discourages the use of electrical or mechanical devices


What is the theory behind reflexology?

Manipulating specific reflexes removes stress, activating a parasympathetic response to enable blockages to be released by a physical change in the body.


What is conventional zone therapy?

foundation of hand and foot reflexology


What are zones in conventional zone therapy in relation to reflexology?

zones are a system of organizing relations of various glands, organs and body parts.

10 equal longitudinal or vertical zones running the length of the body from toes, fingers and head.

from body diving centre line there are 5 zones on right and 5 zones on left of body.

zones are numbered 1 to 5 from inside (medial) to outside (lateral). Each finger and toe falls into one of the 5 zones


What are NOT reflex zones

acupuncture of acupressure points.


What happens when pressure is applied in a zone?

pressure applied to any part of a zone will affect the entire zone. every part, gland or organ can be worked by putting pressure on the pertaining zone


In addition to the longitudinal zones of CZT, what zones does reflexology use? What is their purpose? How is it accomplished?

Transverse zones on the body, feet and hands.

Purpose is to help fix the image of the body by mapping it onto the hands or feet in a proper location.

Four transverse lines are commonly used: transverse pelvic line, waistline, diaphragm line, and neck line.


What are the four main benefits of reflexology?

promotes relaxation with the removal of stress, enhances circulation, assists the body to normalize metabolism naturally, complements all other healing modalities


Do reflexologists diagnosis medical problems?

Do they prescribe medication?




What are some adverse effects of reflexology?

fatigue, headache, nausea, increased perspiration, and diarrhea


Does credentialing exists for reflexologists?

no formal or standardized credentialing exists.


Is there regulations for practicing reflexology in Canada and the US?

Yes. Also in individual states and provinces have their own set of educational or licensing requirements


What is the general consensus of reflexology based on meta analysis of RCT's?

The methodological quality of the RCTs was often poor. Nine high quality RCTs generated negative findings; and five generated positive findings.

Even where RCTs did report positive results, we cannot conclude that reflexology is scientifically valid.


What is the much more likely explanation of reflexology being beneficial?

therapists administering reflexology were effective at making their patients feel better in comparison with patients in the control group. In other words, positive results may simply reflect a non-specific benefit brought about as a result of massage. Based on this evidence, therefore, we cannot make definitive judgements about the value of reflexology.


What is the scientific credibility of reflexology, acupressure and shiatsu?

seriously lacking


Why do a great many people, both therapists and clients, attest to the benefit of treatment using reflexology, shiatsu, and acupressure?

This is a classic case of evidence based on anecdotal studies. Such evidence falls far short of constituting strong supporting evidence based on well-designed studies.


Should we reject reflexology, shiatsu, and acupressure as being worthless?

No we should be cautious. What is entirely plausible is that all three therapies may help decrease anxiety and promote relaxation in many patients. They do this in part by the placebo effect (people feel better because they are convinced that the therapies are genuinely effective). In addition, these therapies may induce benefit simply as a result of being a type of massage


What is another factor why acupressure may be effective compared to reflexology and shiatsu?

it may actually work for certain conditions, especially for the alleviation of pain. That would be consistent with the similar results seen with acupuncture, a closely related therapy.


For which conditions is the evidence strongest that acupressure is beneficial?

The conditions where the evidence is strongest that acupressure is beneficial are pain, post-operative nausea, and vomiting.


Reflexology is a therapy that

is a combination of massage principles, incorporation of longitudinal pathways, and connections to body parts.


Discuss massage therapy in general terms.

Massage therapy is the hand manipulation of body tissues to promote wellness and to reduce stress and pain. It is a therapeutic tool to loosen and stretch muscle and tissue.


List the contraindications of massage therapy.

Contraindications to the use of massage therapy include burns, skin infections, eczema, open wounds, bone fractures, and advanced osteoporosis.


Briefly describe the following types of massage therapy and the techniques involved: Swedish massage, acupressure, lymph drainage, shiatsu, and sports massage.

see descriptions


For which conditions is the evidence strongest that massage therapy is beneficial?

The conditions where the evidence is strongest that massage therapy is beneficial include constipation, back pain, anxiety, depression, and stress.


How common are adverse effects of massage therapy?

extremely rare