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Flashcards in Unit 9 Deck (57):

how are homeopathic medications regulated in the US

they are regulated by law and are available over the counter


What is the principle of homeopathy?

use like to treat like. use the healing power of nature to heal


What does the definition of naturopathy mean?

means nature cure; a concept of healing that uses various natural means


What is the basis of naturopathic medicine?

Uses the principle of the human capacity for self healing

acknowledges the biomedical model of health and illness

supports the whole person for psychological, social and spiritual aspect of health

promotes a patient centred relationship


What does the term vis medicatrix naturae mean? How is it used in naturopathy?

means the healing power of nature

denotes the body's ability to heal itself


What are the four different schools of thoughts that formed naturopathy?

Hippocrates: believed in the healing power of the body

hydrotherapy: believed in hot and cold water could treat illness and disease

nature cure: natural living in the form of a vegetarian diet, light and air baths

hygienic system: amalgamated hydrotherapy and nature cure with vegetarianism


What are the principles of the naturopathic cure?

1: elimination of evil habits- remove drinking, overeating meats and improper living hours

2: corrective habits: correct breathing, exercise, mental attitude

3: new principles of living: proper fasting, food, light and air baths, mechano-therapy, steam baths or other baths


What is autotoxicity?

the effect of impacted fecal matter staying in the digestive process for too long.

Believed that by eating meat produces poisons which make it difficult to break the meat down, producing toxemia

advocates that people return to a healthy state to more easily digest food


What is Thomsonianism practice of naturopathy?

belief that a disease had one general cause: loss of vital fluids by cold and the cure was animal warmth

Believes that minerals are the source of cold due to them being in the ground and vegetation which grows towards the sun produces heat which is the cure

individuals could self treat with enough understanding of the philosophy


What are the four doctrines of homeopathic medicine?

like cures like

medication could be enhanced by minute doses

all disease is the result of a surpassed itch

healing proceeds from in to outward


What are some of the influences of naturopathic medicine?

homeopathic medicine
manipulative therapies
physical culture (exercise cures all)


What are some recent influences on naturopathic medicine?

proper nutrition for the prevention of disease

proper scientific evaluation of treatments

therapeutic nutrition, environmental medicine, functional medicine, genomics, spiritual medicine, laboratory methods


What is therapeutic nutrition?

enzyme systems depend on essential nutrients

a whole food diet is important for health

individuals are a biochemical individual; needs proper nutrients to sustain


What is functional medicine in relation for therapeutic nutrition?

nutrition for the prevention of illness and disease

practitioners use the latest in lab tests to focus on biochemistry of the individual, which focus on suboptimal performance, chronic illness and degenerative disease

based on lab tests recommends a nutritional intervention to the disease


What lab tests do functional nutrition doctors use to diagnose?

laboratory tools for gastrointestinal system, nutrition, detoxification, oxidative stress, immunology, hormones and the heart and blood vessels


What is environmental medicine and clinical ecology?

believe that the environment provides toxicity in individuals

assess toxic load in individuals due to environmental stresses


What are labs used for in naturopaths?

to assess nutritional status, metabolic dysfunction, digestive function, bowel flora, toxic loads, liver detoxification, and genomics


What are the seven core principles that provide the foundation of naturopathic medicine?

the healing power of nature
first do no harm
find the cause
treat the whole person
preventative medicine
wellness and health promotion
doctor as teacher


What s naturopathic medicine?

a distinct system stresses promotion of health, prevention of disease, patient education and self responsibility and is a way of life.

Is not identified with any particular therapy but with a way of thinking about life, health and disease


What is the healing power of nature (the vis medicatrix naturae)?

the belief in the ability of the body to heal itself

belief in the matter, mind energy and spirit are each apart of nature and are therefore involved in healing

Naturopathic medicine is therefore vitalistic in its approach believing the body is an intelligent being on it's own


What are the three precepts to do no harm that naturopaths follow?

1) use methods and medicines that minimize the risk of harmful effects and use the least possible intervention to restore health

2) suppression of symptoms in avoided when possible

3) respect and work with the natural power of healing when diagnosing, treating and counselling patients because if self healing is not respected then the patient can be harmed


Describe the nature of naturopathic medicine practice today

trained to assess cause and develop treatment plans based on treating the whole person

may practice as specialists after training in botanical, homeopathy, nutritional, acupuncture, ayurvedic, oriental and chinese medicine, counselling, or midwifery

two ends of practice: those who adhere to the natural healing process of lifestyle modification, and those who use botanicals to treat patients


What is the natural order of therapeutic intervention?

Is a hierarchy of how a person heals based on the concept of using the least amount of intervention to heal.

Has seven stages:

1) reestablish health
2) stimulate natural healing
3) nourish weakened system
4) correct deficiencies
5) prescribe specific substances for modalities
6) prescribe pharmaceutical substances
7) use radiation of chemotherapy

Appropriate proceeds from least to most force


how are homeopathic medications prepared?

prepared according to the specifications of the Homeopathic Pharmacopeia of the US


What is hydrotherapy and how is it used?

the use of water n any of its forms to treat disease.

used to stimulate healing to detoxify, and to strengthen the immune function


What is physical medicine?

therapeutic use of touch, heat, cold, electricity and sound

uses physical therapy equipment such as ultrasound, diathermy an other electromagnetic devices


What is detoxification?

the recognition and correction of toxicity and is an important theme in naturopathic medicine


What is spirituality related to in naturopathic medicine?

central to practice and related to the patients own spiritual beliefs which moves them through life for a higher purpose


What is the naturopathic approach to cervical dysplasia?

1) education: educate patient in risks that increase the chance of developing cervical dysplasia

2) prevention: nutritional status is optimized

3) treatment: a vaginal depletion pack to promote sloughing of cells


What is the naturopathic approach to a migraine headache?

Recognize that most migrants are caused by food allergies

1) identify the allergy and avoid it
2) supplement with magnesium
3) reestablish normal prostaglandin levels by decreasing animal fat consumption
4) supplement with riboflavin


What is the naturopathic approach to hypertension?

1) diet change to reduce sodium, sugar, caffeine and alcohol

2) lifestyle changes including smoking, obesity and stress are addressed

3) environment: ensure reduced levels to lead and cadmium

4) botanical medicine: used to lower blood pressure rapidly until the above three take into effect


How does lifestyle modification play into naturopathic medicine?

it is a crucial element as health is natural healing from ones self.


What are two examples which lend to naturopathic belief that prevention is the best cure?

lung disease caused by smoking is preventable by not smoking and is often reversible, at least to some degree, when a person quits smoking.

a generally healthy lifestyle is now recognized as the ideal way to prevent coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension, and is also an effective therapy for these conditions.


What is the natural force of healing based on from 1918?

How is it important?

The natural system for curing disease is based on . . . the employment of various forces to eliminate the poisonous products in the system. . . .”

Despite an almost total absence of supporting evidence, this concept is still found in various therapies today.


What is auto toxicity based on?

based on a variation of fasting where disease is produced due to toxins from fecal matter in the colon


What is the naturopathic attitude to infections which is still prevalent today?

naturopaths have advocated the concept that the true cause of infectious disease is an unhealthy body

They often argued that a healthy body, free of toxins, has total resistance to infections. Going one step further there was opposition in some quarters to immunization. While the concept is a wild exaggeration, it does contain some degree of truth: it is now firmly established that people suffering from malnutrition typically have a weakened immune system and are especially vulnerable to infections.


Describe the history of hydrotherapy

naturopathy placed strong emphasis on hydrotherapy for many years

imported into the US

still practiced in europe today in spas and pools

saunas and hot tubs are variations of this therapy

does induce relaxation which may explain why it it so healing


How do naturopaths claim to be different from physicians?

they claim to treat the whole person (holistic), where modern medicine is reductionist and focuses on disease


What are the arguments for holistic healing and against whole healing?

For: cancer patients need nutrition, social support and emotional support to recover from their disease. Coronary disease patients need to adapt a healthy lifestyle.

against: But what about arthritis and depression? With these disorders there is usually a very specific dysfunction in a single body system. Conventional medicine has treatments of proven effectiveness that target the problem (pain killers for the former, anti-depressants for the latter). In these cases treating the whole body is unlikely to be of much help.


why do naturopaths not advocate a physician treatment?

One of the core principles of naturopathic medicine is to use treatments that minimize risk to the patient

There is no doubt that many physicians do indeed give inappropriate treatments that cause harm. This is a common problem with prescribed drugs.

The obvious solution to this is to improve the quality of treatment given by conventional physicians. But—more importantly—harmful side effects are often the price patients must pay in order to receive benefit. An obvious example is cancer therapy: drugs, surgery, and radiation all have harmful side effects.


How can naturopaths harm a patient?

They emphasize that they do not suppress symptoms

This implies that naturopaths would refuse to give pain killers to a patient with arthritis or anti-depressants to one with depression. This approach means that patients are deliberately deprived of helpful treatments. Moreover, there is no evidence that these drugs interfere in the self-healing in the joints of patients with arthritis or somehow impede the brain from normalizing its neurochemical imbalances that are the underlying cause of depression.


Discuss how conventional medicine has moved into preventative medicine but still has some short comings

over the course of the last several decades conventional medicine has given more and more attention to this crucial area. For example, conventional physicians routinely screen middle-aged patients for such conditions as pre-diabetes, hypertension, and high blood cholesterol. Interventions are then made where appropriate so as to prevent diseases. However, what conventional physicians do, more often than not, is to write a prescription rather than encourage their patients to follow a healthy lifestyle. We shall return to this topic later.


What other types of therapies has naturopathy adopted?

herbalism, homeopathy, acupuncture, hydrotherapy, physical therapy, spinal manipulation, lifestyle counselling, nutrition (including the use of vitamin and mineral supplements), and psychological counselling.


What kind of diagnostic tools do naturopaths use?

As part of their practice naturopaths carry out patient assessment and diagnosis using standard approaches including physical examination, lab tests, and clinical assessment.


describe the negatives of naturopathy approach

Indeed, many of today’s drugs started life in previous centuries as herbal treatments. It appears that naturopaths have little hesitation in employing herbs as treatments but reject the use of pharmacological substances, even if they are substances found naturally in plants but that have been made synthetically

Homeopathic medicine is uncritically accepted. homeopathy is highly controversial and is far from being proven as effective. What is the logic in accepting treatment with some chemicals (as homeopathic or herbal medicines) but rejecting it for others (drugs)?

The text states that hydrotherapy is used by naturopaths “. . . to detoxify, and to strengthen immune function. . . .” (page 313). As was mentioned earlier, there is scant supporting evidence for this.


How often are detoxification therapies used?

92% in the US, over 50% in canada


What are the two assumptions which make detoxification debunked?

These two surveys reveal that large numbers of naturopaths are carrying out interventions based on two assumptions: (1) that toxins are causing health problems, and (2) that various interventions, such as diet, herbs, fasting, and colon irrigation, can somehow “detoxify” the body. There is extremely little published research that in any way supports these claims.


What is a serious issue with the treatment of cervical dysplasia?

The standard medical procedure involves minor surgery. This is safe and effective. Instead, the text recommends botanical treatment but provides no supporting evidence for its efficacy.


What is a serious issue with the treatment of migraine headaches

Rejects conventional treatment. Instead, it recommends various nutritional treatments including a supplement supplying 400 mg of riboflavin per day. This dose is about 300 times higher than the RDA for a man. Such a mega-dose of a vitamin is more akin to drug therapy than to a nutritional therapy. It is hard to see the logic in rejecting a drug that is proven to alleviate symptoms but recommending vitamin mega-doses.


What is a serious issue with the treatment of hypertension?

recommends mistletoe while making no mention of drugs. There are several drugs that are widely used for hypertension. Diuretics, in particular, have been much studied and are of proven effectiveness. They are also cheap and safe. By contrast, mistletoe has not been properly tested in clinical trials and is toxic.


what are some favourable reasons for naturopathic medicine?

Naturopaths avoid risk in medication while conventional physicians can go too far prescribing medications that can cause harm

they place a strong emphasis on preventative medicine while physicians do not place enough on this. Instead, they overprescribe medication. Example: dietary changes are proven effective yet many people who visit their physician may not receive this information. Also, one third of obese patients in canada had been advised to lose weight even though it is a cure.


What is the reason why physicians are unable to provide adequate care in some circumstances?

A lack of time. Writing a prescription for drugs that treat hypertension or high blood cholesterol takes a mere few minutes whereas counselling patients on making lifestyle changes is far more time consuming. In a system where physicians generally spend no more than 10 or 15 minutes on each consultation, it is simply not possible to make a serious effort to assess a patient’s lifestyle and then deliver appropriate counselling. Naturopaths, by contrast, spend much more time with their patients. A typical first visit takes one hour.


How is the practice of naturopathy performed in canada and the US?

Naturopathic physicians (NDs) are trained as primary-care physicians in four-year, accredited doctoral-level naturopathic medical schools. There are two such schools in Canada and several in the USA. NDs can be licensed in four Canadian provinces (British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, and Saskatchewan). Reimbursements for visits to naturopaths are made by some private health insurance companies but not by provincial governments.


why has the gap between naturopaths and conventional medicine been narrowing?

the increase research which shows that prevention is the best cure. The strong emphasis that naturopaths place on encouraging their patients to prevent disease by living a healthy lifestyle is a strong positive feature. Also, as naturopaths are opposed to the use of treatments that pose a risk, they are unlikely to harm their patients by, for example, causing opiate addiction.


Naturopathy is effective for the treatment of hypertension as it combined diet therapy with herbal treatment. Discuss this claim.

Diet therapy is an effective treatment for hypertension. In that respect naturopathy is effective. However, drug therapy is also highly effective as well as being fairly inexpensive and relatively safe. It is also much superior to herbal treatments. As naturopaths are likely to prescribe herbal treatments rather than drugs, that is a major limitation of naturopathic treatment of hypertension.


List four therapies that are used in naturopathic medicine, at least by some practitioners.

herbalism, chiropractic, homeopathy, diet therapy


Describe the underlying principles of naturopathic medicine.

treat the whole person
human body strives toward health
toxins affect the health of an individual
body is its own best healer, naturopathic remedies are not harmful
prevention is the best treatment