Unit 7 Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 7 Vocab Deck (72):
1

Allocational

Argue about the distribution of resources

2

Annexation

A country taking over an area because it is in their territory

3

Antecedent

A border made before an area is populated

4

Apartheid

Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas.

5

Balkanization

process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities

6

Boundary

an indivisible line marking the extent of a state's territory

7

Buffer state

a small neutral state between two rival powers

8

Centripetal

An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state

9

Centrifugal

a force that divides people and countries

10

City-state

A sovereign state comprising a city and it's immediately surrounding countryside.

11

Cold War

This period of time following World War II is where the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers and faced off in an arms race that lasted nearly 50 years.

a state of political conflict using means short of armed warfare

12

Colonialism

An attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economical, and cultural principles in a another country.

13

Conference of Berlin (1884)

The meeting of European powers in 1884-85 resulting in the Berlin Treaty and the partition of Africa into colonies of the attending nations.

14

Compact state

A state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly

15

Decolonization

the action of changing from colonial to independent status

16

Definitional Boundary Dispute

The legal agreement over the border is disputed; wording of the treaty

17

Definition boundary process

Phase in which the exact location of a boundary is legally described and negotiated; treaty

18

Delimitation boundary process

The translation of the written terms of a boundary treaty into an official cartographic representation; geograophical (coordinates)

19

Demarcation boundary process

Phase in which the boundary is visibly marked on the landscape by a fence, line, sign, wall or other means.

20

Democracy

A country in which citizen elect leader and can run for office.

21

Devolution

Country turning from unitary to federal. Central government loses power to local government.

22

Dictatorship

rule by one person or group of people, little or no voting.

23

Domino theory

speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. The domino effect suggests that some change, small in itself, will cause a similar change nearby, which then will cause another similar change, and so on in linear sequence, by analogy to a falling row of dominoes standing on end.

24

EEZ

Exclusive Economic Zone- a sea zone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources

25

Electoral Regions

different voting districts that make up local, state, and national regions

26

Elongated State

A state with a long, narrow shape

27

Enclave

An enclave is a country or part of a country mostly surrounded by the territory of another country or lying within the boundaries of another country

28

Exclave

An exclave is a country which is geographically separated from the main part by surrounding alien territory

29

Ethnicity

Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common hereditary and cultural traditions.

30

Ethnic Conflict

An ethnic conflict is a war between ethnic groups often as a result of ethnic nationalism or fight over natural resources. Ethnic conflict often includes genocide. It can also be caused by boundary disputes

31

Ethnographic/Cultural Boundary Type

Political boundaries that coincide with cultural breaks in the landscape, such as language, religion, and ethnicity.

32

European Union

an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members

33

Federal State

An Internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government.

34

Forward Capital

to relocate a capital city for economical, political or, environmental reasons

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Fragmented state

includes several discontinuous pieces of territory

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Geometric boundary type

political boundaries defined and delimited as straight lines or arcs

37

Geopolitics

study of the interplay between international political relations and the territorial/environmental context in which they occur.

38

Gerrymandering

Process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power.

39

Heartland theory

Hypothesis proposed by Halford Mckinder that held that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world. E Europe and W Asia.

40

Iron curtain

a political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eatern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region

41

Irredentism

the assertion by the government of a country that has a minority living outside its former borders belonging to it historically and culturally

42

Israel/Palestine

a religious conflict between the Jewish and Arab populations in the former Ottoman Empire region of Palestine

43

Landlocked

A state that is completely surrounded by the land of other states, which gives it a disadvantage in terms of accessibility to and from international trade routes

44

Law of Sea

Law establishing states rights and responsibilities concerning the ownership and use of the earth's seas and oceans and their resources.

45

Locational boundary dispute

dispute over where a boundary is placed

46

Natural/Physical boundary type

boundaries that are made by important physical features on Earth's surface; can include mountains, deserts and water.

47

Nation

a politically organized body of people under a single government

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Nation-state

a state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality

49

Multiethnic state

a state that contains more than on ethnicity.

50

Multinational state

contains two ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities

51

Multistate nation

Nationality stretches across borders and across states, split among states

52

Operational boundary dispute

Involve neighbors who differ over the way their boundary should function

53

Perforated State

a state that completely surrounds another one

54

Morphology

study of states' shapes and their effects

55

Prorupted state

an otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension

56

Race

A categorization of humans based on skin color and other physical characteristics.

57

Reapportionment

process by which representative districts are switched according to population shifts, so that each district encompasses approximately the same number of people

58

Relic boundary origin

old political boundaries that no longer exist as international borders, but that have left an enduring mark on the local cultural or environmental geography

59

Rimland theory

Nicholas Spykman's theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provide the base for world conquest

60

Self determination

the ability of a government to determine their own course of their own free will

61

Sovereignty

government free from external control

62

State

an area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government that has control over its internal and foreign affairs

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Stateless nation

A nationality that is not represented by a state.

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Subsequent boundary origin

a boundary line established after an area has been populated that considered the social and cultural characteristics of the area

65

Superimposed boundary origin

boundary that is imposed on the cultural landscape, ignoring pre-existing cultural patterns (typically a colonial boundary)

66

Supranationalism

venture of two or more states involving formal economic, political, and/or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives

67

Unitary State

An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials

68

World System Theory

Core, Periphery, Semi-Periphery, dependency theory

69

Supranational Organization

Organization of three or more states to promote shared objectives.

70

Territoriality

a country's or more local community's sense of property and attachment toward its territory, as expressed by its determination to keep it inviolable and strongly defended

71

Theocracy

a state whose government is under the control of a ruler who is deemed to be divinely guided or under the control of a group of religious leaders

72

United Nations

A supranational organization formed in 1945 to promote peace, security, and international cooperation