Flashcards in Unit 7 Vocab Deck (72):
Argue about the distribution of resources
A country taking over an area because it is in their territory
A border made before an area is populated
Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas.
process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities
an indivisible line marking the extent of a state's territory
a small neutral state between two rival powers
An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state
a force that divides people and countries
A sovereign state comprising a city and it's immediately surrounding countryside.
This period of time following World War II is where the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers and faced off in an arms race that lasted nearly 50 years.
a state of political conflict using means short of armed warfare
An attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economical, and cultural principles in a another country.
Conference of Berlin (1884)
The meeting of European powers in 1884-85 resulting in the Berlin Treaty and the partition of Africa into colonies of the attending nations.
A state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly
the action of changing from colonial to independent status
Definitional Boundary Dispute
The legal agreement over the border is disputed; wording of the treaty
Definition boundary process
Phase in which the exact location of a boundary is legally described and negotiated; treaty
Delimitation boundary process
The translation of the written terms of a boundary treaty into an official cartographic representation; geograophical (coordinates)
Demarcation boundary process
Phase in which the boundary is visibly marked on the landscape by a fence, line, sign, wall or other means.
A country in which citizen elect leader and can run for office.
Country turning from unitary to federal. Central government loses power to local government.
rule by one person or group of people, little or no voting.
speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. The domino effect suggests that some change, small in itself, will cause a similar change nearby, which then will cause another similar change, and so on in linear sequence, by analogy to a falling row of dominoes standing on end.
Exclusive Economic Zone- a sea zone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources
different voting districts that make up local, state, and national regions
A state with a long, narrow shape
An enclave is a country or part of a country mostly surrounded by the territory of another country or lying within the boundaries of another country
An exclave is a country which is geographically separated from the main part by surrounding alien territory
Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common hereditary and cultural traditions.
An ethnic conflict is a war between ethnic groups often as a result of ethnic nationalism or fight over natural resources. Ethnic conflict often includes genocide. It can also be caused by boundary disputes
Ethnographic/Cultural Boundary Type
Political boundaries that coincide with cultural breaks in the landscape, such as language, religion, and ethnicity.
an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
An Internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government.
to relocate a capital city for economical, political or, environmental reasons
includes several discontinuous pieces of territory
Geometric boundary type
political boundaries defined and delimited as straight lines or arcs
study of the interplay between international political relations and the territorial/environmental context in which they occur.
Process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power.
Hypothesis proposed by Halford Mckinder that held that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world. E Europe and W Asia.
a political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eatern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region
the assertion by the government of a country that has a minority living outside its former borders belonging to it historically and culturally
a religious conflict between the Jewish and Arab populations in the former Ottoman Empire region of Palestine
A state that is completely surrounded by the land of other states, which gives it a disadvantage in terms of accessibility to and from international trade routes
Law of Sea
Law establishing states rights and responsibilities concerning the ownership and use of the earth's seas and oceans and their resources.
Locational boundary dispute
dispute over where a boundary is placed
Natural/Physical boundary type
boundaries that are made by important physical features on Earth's surface; can include mountains, deserts and water.
a politically organized body of people under a single government
a state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality
a state that contains more than on ethnicity.
contains two ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities
Nationality stretches across borders and across states, split among states
Operational boundary dispute
Involve neighbors who differ over the way their boundary should function
a state that completely surrounds another one
study of states' shapes and their effects
an otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension
A categorization of humans based on skin color and other physical characteristics.
process by which representative districts are switched according to population shifts, so that each district encompasses approximately the same number of people
Relic boundary origin
old political boundaries that no longer exist as international borders, but that have left an enduring mark on the local cultural or environmental geography
Nicholas Spykman's theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provide the base for world conquest
the ability of a government to determine their own course of their own free will
government free from external control
an area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government that has control over its internal and foreign affairs
A nationality that is not represented by a state.
Subsequent boundary origin
a boundary line established after an area has been populated that considered the social and cultural characteristics of the area
Superimposed boundary origin
boundary that is imposed on the cultural landscape, ignoring pre-existing cultural patterns (typically a colonial boundary)
venture of two or more states involving formal economic, political, and/or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives
An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials
World System Theory
Core, Periphery, Semi-Periphery, dependency theory
Organization of three or more states to promote shared objectives.
a country's or more local community's sense of property and attachment toward its territory, as expressed by its determination to keep it inviolable and strongly defended
a state whose government is under the control of a ruler who is deemed to be divinely guided or under the control of a group of religious leaders