Unit 9 Flashcards Preview

Edexcel History Germany > Unit 9 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 9 Deck (104):
1

When did Georg Elser attempt to assassinate Hitler?

November 1939

2

When was France invaded? (Second world war)

May 1940

3

What order met opposition in Bavaria in April 1941?

The order to remove crucifixes from walls

4

Where did deputy Fuhrer Rudolf Hess fly in 1941?

Scotland

5

When did Operation Barbarossa begin?

June 1941

6

What was Operation Barbarossa the code name for?

The invasion of the Soviet Union

7

What did Bishop Von Galen publicly challenge in August 1941?

The T4 programme

8

When did Germany declare war on the USA (second world war)

11th December 1941

9

What occurred in the Christmas bonus of 1942?

Every citizen received extra rations, including an extra 200 Grammes of meat

10

When did clothing become scarce?

1941

11

When were permits introduced for furniture?

1st August 1942

12

When did household goods begin to be rationed?

20th January 1943

13

How did Georg Elser attempt to assassinate Hitler?

He exploded a bomb when Hitler made a speech commemorating the Munich Putsch. Bomb exploded but hitler wasn't in room at the time

14

What was the elation over victory in France in 1940 replaced by?

Frustration as Britain refused to back down and submit to German rule

15

Why did morale take a further hit in May 1941?

Rudolf Hess flew to Scotland and returned empty handed

16

What did Goebbels appeal for on the 19th of December 1941

Winter clothes for troops

17

Why was the failure to win outright victory immediately in the east significant?

It led many to question Nazi ideology for the first time

18

When was Goebbels total war speech?

February 1943

19

What caused greater contempt at nazi rule?

Defeat in North Africa, Soviet Union, the Atlantic and Italy

20

What was an example of resistance that was reported to the party chancellory in March and April 1943?

The Fuhrer was prone to criticism and jokes, specifically many one liners that showed a distinct lack of respect for the once revered figure

21

What defeat clearly marked a turning point in war moral?

The defeat at Stalingrad

22

What were the two goals of the RAF and USAF bombing campaigns?

Destroying the German war industry
Undermining morale on the home front

23

How many Germans were killed by allied bombing?

305,000 killed, 780,000 were injured and nearly 2 million homes were destroyed

24

Which two bombing campaigns killed 80,000 civilians between them?

Dresden February 1945
Hamburg summer of 1943

25


What did the state attempt to provide bomb victims with,

Alternative accommodation and some financial compensation

26

What did goebbels call for in an attempt to stop the demoralisation caused by bombing attacks?

Ausharren (peserverance) which generated a spirit of heroic resistance

27

When did nazi propaganda become less effective?

When the reality of certain defeat dawned

28

What did the petitions over the removal of crucifixes cause Wagner to do?

He overturned his original order

29

What were Bavarians doing when then protested against the crucifix crisis?

They were defending their regional culture, not challenging the Fuhrer

30

What was the T4 programme?

The policy of killing asylum patients and the closure of local monasteries

31

What was opposition from the church motivated by?

An attempt to maintain independence and integrity within the system, not an objection to Nazism

32

Why was Dietrich Bonhoffer executed in April 1945?

He went against the official church policy and opposed the regime. Dissent was individual not institutional

33

What was the official policy of the churches?

Pragmatic cooperation

34

What was any communist opposition to the regime initially undermined by?

The nazi soviet pact which lasted from August 1939 to June 1941

35

Who set up communist resistance cells in factories?

Robert Uhrig

36

How many cells of opposition were in Berlin in the summer of 1941?

89

37

Who did the communist resistance unite under in 1942?

Wilhelm Knochel

38

What was the main weakness of the communist opposition?

It was vulnerable to Gestapo infiltration

39

What devastated the communist movement in 1943?

Knochel was arrested

40

What act of rebellion did a Jewish communist group commit in 1942?

They fire bombed an anti Russian exhibition in Berlin

41

What did both the Goerdeler and the Kreisau circle want?

The restoration of human rights
And end to the war
Restoration of the rule of law

42

Which conservative opposition group wanted a democratic Germany?

The Kreisau circle, they wanted the foundation of self governing local communities

43

How did the Goerdeler group want Germany to be ruled?

They rejected the idea of democracy in favour of an aristocratically governed society

44

What did Goerdeler want to see an end to?

State involvement in economic affairs

45

What did Moltke and Goerdeler disagree on?

Moltke wanted the emergence of a European Union
Goerdeler wanted Germany to retain its role as an independent European power

46

When was the Kreisau circle discovered by the Gestapo?

1944

47

Who did the Army swear allegiance to?

Hitler

48

When did opposition with the army begin to emerge?

1943

49

Why did generals begin opposing the regime?

Political interference of the SS had become intolerable
Generals from the Eastern Front shocked by atrocities committed against Jews
Growing belief Germany was losing the war

50

Why did operation flash fail in 1943?

The bomb on Hitlers plane failed to explode

51

Who emerged as a leading assassination plotter in 1944?

Count Von Stauffenburg

52

Who did the bomb plot of 1944 aim to replace Hitler with?

Beck as president, Carl Goerdeler as chancellor

53

Who switched sides when the bomb plot failed?

General Fromm. He arrested Stauffenburg and the other conspirators, killed them all to save himself

54

What happened in the army as a result of the bomb plot in 1944?

Hitler salute became compulsory
Himmler became commander in chief of the Home Army
Political officers were appointed to root out dissent

55

How many generals were executed as a result of the 1944 bomb plot?

22 out of 2000

56

What finally destroyed the myths of military invincibility and the stab in the back?

Total defeat in 1945

57

What did General Thomas lead at the ministry of war?

The economics section in charge of the armaments programme

58

Who was the chief rival of the ministry of war for administrative supremacy of the war economy?

The ministry of economics, led by Walter Funk and the Four Year Plan, led by Hermann Goring

59

When was the ministry of munitions created?

March 1940 under Fritz Todt

60

What was the main economic problem/strain for the Germans?

Until 1942, the German economy was not fully mobilised for war

61

Why were Blitzkrieg wars used by Germany?

They didn't not place as great a demand on economic production

62

How much did output by head fall by in 1939-1940?

12.5%

63

What did military expenditure raise to in 1942?

17.2 billion reichmarks in 1939 to 55.9 billion reichmarks in 1942

64

When did the number of workers working in aircraft manufacturing double?

1939-1941

65

How many less workers were in the workforce in May 1940 than the year before?

3.5 million workers

66

How did Germany make up the shortfall of workers?

French prisoners of war (800,000 by October 1940) and other nationals. Total of 2 million foreign workers by end of 1940

67

How many workers were drafted in to the armed forces in 1941?

1.7 million

68

What did General Thomas call for in February 1941?

Use of more rational measures of production to increase efficiency

69

What did the Vichy government in France declare in September 1942?

Work compulsory for all men and women aged 18-65

70

What did Hitler issue on the 3rd of December 1941?

The Fuhrer order on the simplification and increased efficiency in armaments production-- basically wanted Todt to rationalise

71

Who accepted responsibility for raising levels of production?

Industry

72

Who was Todts successor in February 1942?

Albert Speer

73

What gave Speer responsibility for all industrial output and raw materials?

The post of minister for armaments and production (September 1943)

74

What was speers main aim?

Introduce labour time and space saving measures thereby boosting production

75

When was the armaments commission set up?

1943 to standardise production and allow greater mass production

76

What was a benefit to the promotion of better use of floor space?

Production of the me109 plane went up from 180 a month in seven factories to 1,000 a month in 3 factories

77

What did the output per head rise by in armaments from 1939-1943?

It was 32% higher in 1943

78

How much less aluminium was used in guns after rationalisation took place?

93%

79

How much did the number of industrial workers increase by between 1942 and 1943?

11%

80

How much did the production of all weapons grow by between 1941 and 1943?

130%

81

Why was economic performance during the war not coherently organised?

Nazi state too chaotic, too many competing agencies and power blocks for any consistent policy to be formulated

82

What was goebbels appointed to after the bomb plot?

Reich plenipotentiary for total war

83

Why were foreigners not good workers for the Germans to use?

Their productivity was 60-80% lower than that of the German worker

84

What remained constant from Sweden during the war

The amount of iron ore imported

85

How much did the demand for steel exceed supply by in 1942?

30%

86

How many extra women entered the workforce between 1939 and 1944?

200,000

87

Why did hurler ideologically disagree with women working?

Role of women= kinder kuche kirche (children kitchen church)

88

How many more children were born in 1939 than 6 years earlier?

1 million

89

How many single women were employed at the start of the war?

88.7%

90

What did Ian Kershaw say was the trigger to the final solution?

Hitler agreeing to deport Jews 16th September 1941

91

What did nazi propaganda present the war with Russia as?

A racial war

92

How much iron ore did areas of Europe that contained labour camps produce by 1943?

6.7 million tonnes

93

What word did Hitler use in his speech on the 30th of January 1939 to describe what would happen to the Jews?

Vernichtung (annihilation)

94

What did S.S officers such as Oswald Pohl see a chance for with the number of Jews they had under nazi control?

Camps similar to Russian gulags

95

What was the role of the Einsatzgruppen?

Persecute Russian Jews. Killed 700,000 in 8 months

96

What did Goebbels demand in 1941?

Gauleiters should be allowed to deport Jews

97

What did Arthur Greiser call for in 1941?

Radical action towards Jews, eg extermination

98

When did gassing facilities begin production in Lublin for Jews who could not work?

16th September 1941

99

When did Germab Jews lose their citizenship?

April 1943

100

When were Jews ordered to wear a Star of David badge?

1st September 1941

101

When was the Wannsee conference?

20th January 1942

102

When is it clear that the basis decided to systematically annihilate Jews?

The Wannsee conference

103

How many concentration camps did Oswald Pohl have control over by 1942?

29 and 165 labour camps

104

How many Jews had been murdered by the time Aushwitz had been liberated in 1945?

Approximately 6 million