Unit IV Med Review Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit IV Med Review Deck (46):
1

Metformin Trade Name

Glucophage

2

Metformin Category

Biguanides

3

Metformin Use

Type 2 DM

4

Metformin Dose

500 mg bid initially, then 1000 mg bid (max 2500mg/day)

Or 850mg qday initially, then 850mg bid-tid

5

Metformin AE

CI: CKD- Men SCr > 1.5, Women SCr > 1.4, acidosis, hypoxia, dehydration, IV contrast

AE: GI side effects diarrhea/abdominal cramping, lactic acidosis (rare), Vitamin B12 deficiency

6

Insulin Trade Name

Humulin R
Novolin R

7

Insulin Category

Insulin

8

Insulin Use

Type 1 DM
Type 2 DM

9

Insulin Dose

DM1: 0.5-0.6 U/kg/day initially,
then 0.5-1 U/kg/day divided (1/2 basal, 1/2 prandial)

DM2: 0.1-0.2 U/kg/day

10

Insulin AE

Hypoglycemia, weight gain, mitogenic effects, injection
site reactions, atrophy or hypertrophy of subcutaneous
fat tissue

11

Glipizide Trade Name

Glucotrol

12

Glipizide Category

Sulfonylureas

13

Glipizide Use

Type 2 DM

14

Glipizide Dose

2.5-5 mg qd initially, then 1-4 mg qd

Usual dose: 5-20 mg qday (max 40mg qday)

15

Glipizide AE

Hypoglycemia, weight gain, blunts myocardial ischemic
conditioning, low durability

16

Exenatide Trade Name

Byetta, Bydureon

17

Exenatide Category

GLP-1 receptor
agonist

18

Exenatide Use

Type 2 DM

19

Exenatide Dose

Initial: 5 mcg sq bid within 60 min ac
Usual:10 mcg sq bid (increase after one month; if BG not controlled then increase to 1.2 mg qday, then 1.8 mg qday

20

Exenatide AE

GI side effects (N/V), acute pancreatitis (C-cell
hyperplasia/medullary thyroid tumors in animals)

21

Pioglitazone Trade Name

Actos

22

Pioglitazone Category

Thiazolidinediones (TZDs)

23

Pioglitazone Use

Type 2 DM

24

Pioglitazone AE

Weight gain, edema, cause or worsen heart failure (2x increased risk), bone fractures, ↑bladder cancer risk

CI: class III/IV heart failure

25

Sitagliptin Trade Name

Januvia

26

Sitagliptin Category

DPP-4 Inhibitor

27

Sitagliptin Use

Type 2 DM

28

Sitagliptin AE

Urticaria/angioedema, pancreatitis

29

Levothyroxine Trade Name

Synthroid,
Levothroid,
Levoxyl

30

Levothyroxine Category

Synthetic T4

31

Levothyroxine Use

Hypothyroidism

32

Levothyroxine Dose

1.7 mcg/kg/day
> 50 or CV dz: 25-50 mcg po qday
> 50 w/ CV dz: 12.5-25 mcg po qd
Myxedema coma: 300-500 mcg IV

Take on empty stomach 30 min before meal

33

Levothyroxine AE

HTN, tachycardia, insomnia, diarrhea, excessive doses can lead to Heart failure, angina pectoris, MI, reduced bone density

Allergic or idiosyncratic rxns rare

CI: acute MI, thyrotoxicosis, adrenal insufficiency

34

Methimazole Trade Name

Tapazole

35

Methimazole Category

Antithyroid Agent

36

Methimazole Use

Hyperthyroidism

37

Methimazole AE

Major (1.5-4.6%): agranulocytosis (in first 3 mo of
therapy), arthralgias and lupus-like syndrome (usually after 6 mo), GI intolerance, hepatotoxicity: MMI usually in first 3 months

Minor (5-25% incidence): pruritic maculopapular rash, arthralgias, fevers, benign transient leucopenia; cross sensitivity of minor AEs ~50%

CI: pregnancy

38

Orlistat Trade Name

Xenical Rx
Alli OTC

39

Orlistat Category

Anorexiant/ Lipase Inhibitor

40

Orlistat Use

Weight loss

41

Orlistat Dose

Rx: 120 mg tid with each meal containing fat
OTC: 60 mg

42

Orlistat AE

CI: Chronic malabsorption syndrome or cholestasis, pregnancy

AE: GI: oily or loose stools, fecal urgency/incontinence, bloating and gas, may worsen with increased fat in the diet, Interference with absorption of some fat-soluble vitamins (D, E and β carotene), rare cases of severe liver injury with hepatocellular necrosis or acute hepatic failure, rare acute kidney injury

43

Phentermine/Topiramate Trade Name

Qsymia

44

Phentermine/Topiramate Category

Anorexiant/AED

45

Phentermine/Topiramate Use

Weight Loss

46

Phentermine/Topiramate AE

AE: dizziness, insomnia, tingling in hands/feet, impaired cognition, may increase resting HR, suicidal ideation, cognitive impairment

CI: pregnancy, glaucoma, hyperthyroidism, with or within 14 days of MAOI, hx of CV disease