Unit Two: Dr Smith's Content Flashcards Preview

BI110 - Unifying Life Processes > Unit Two: Dr Smith's Content > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit Two: Dr Smith's Content Deck (23)
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1
Q

What are Flagella and Cilia

A
  • elongated motile structures that extend from cell surface
  • cilia are shorter than flagella
  • cilia have a greater amount
  • flagellnum propel prokaryotic cells to move
2
Q

What are some structure relevant to plant cells

A
  • chloroplasts
  • central vacuole
  • plant cell walls
3
Q

What are Plastids

A
  • yellow-green in colour
  • site of photosynthesis in plant cells
  • plastids contain DNA genomes and machinery for gene expression + synthesis of protein on ribosomes
  • some proteins within plastids are encoded by genomes/nuclear genes and imported into organelles from cytosol
4
Q

What are Chloroplasts

A
  • surrounded by outer membrane and inner memebrane in the stroma
  • thykaloid content
  • thykaloids contain chlorphyll
  • CONVERT LIGHT ENERGY
5
Q

What is the Central Vacuole

A
  • large vesicles that perform specialized
  • 90% or more of plant cells can be made up of central vacole
  • tonoplast: surrounds the central vacuole
6
Q

What are the functions of central vacuoles

A
  • supports the cell structure
  • store salts, organic acid, sugars, storage proteins, pigments and waste products
  • produce colours of many flowers
  • contain enzymes that break down molecules
  • contain molecules that provide chemical defences against pathogenic organisms
7
Q

What is the function of the Cell Wall

A
  • support individual cells
  • protect cells against invading bacteria and fungi
  • contribute to turgor pressure produced in central vacolue
  • consist of cellulose
8
Q

What is Cellulose

A
  • long polymers of glucose
  • most abundunt macromolecule
  • aggregate into bundles (microfibrils)
  • embedded into network of other polysacchardies
9
Q

What does the middle lamella do

also known as (pectin)

A

hold together walls of adjacent cells

10
Q

What is the Plasmodesmta

A
  • plasma membrane lined-channels that connect the cytosols of adjacent cells
  • allow ions and small molecules to move directly from one cell to another through cytosol
11
Q

What does the Plasmodesmta do

A

preforate primary and secondary cell walls

12
Q

What are some specialized animal structures

A
  1. Cell adhesion molecules
  2. Cell Junctions
  3. Extracellular Matrix
13
Q

What are Cell Adhesion Molecules

A
  • glycoproteins in plasma membrane that bind to specific molecules on other cells
  • organize animal cells into tissues and organs
  • provide avenues of communication
14
Q

What are Anchoring Cell Junctions

A
  • form buttonlike spots, belts, that run entirely around cells
  • welding adjacent cells together

most common in tissues subjected to stretching, scarring, shear, etc

15
Q

What are Desosomes

Anchoring Cell Junction

A

anchoring junctions with intermediate filaments that anchor junction in underlying cytoplasm

16
Q

What are Adherns Junctions

Anchoring Cell Junction

A

anchoring junctions with microfilaments as the anchoring cytoskeletal component

17
Q

What are Tight Cell Junctions

A
  • regions of tight connections between membranes of adjacent cells
  • seal spaces between cells that cover internal organs, outer surface of body, lining of internal cavities and cuts
  • formed by direct fusion of proteins on outer surface
18
Q

What are Gap Junctions

A
  • open direct channels that allow ions and small molecules to pass directly from one cell to another
  • communicate between cells within a tissue
19
Q

What is the Extracellular Matrix (ECM)

A
  • animal cells are embedded in ECM
  • consits of proteins and polysaccharides secreted by cells
  • forms mass of skin, bones, tendons
  • provides protection and support
  • affects cell division, adhesion, takes part in wound reaction
20
Q

Where is the ECM both HARD and SOFT

A

SOFT: cartilage (containing high linkage of glycoproteins)
HARD: bone (containing mineral crystals)

21
Q

What is the Cytoskeletion

A
  • helps cells to maintain shape and internal organization
  • support to carry out cell function
22
Q

Components of the Cytoskeleton

A
  1. Intermediate Filaments
  2. Microtubules
  3. Actin Filaments
23
Q

What are Peroxisome

A
  • single membrane organelles
  • sequester diverse oxidative reactions
  • play important roles in metabolism, oxygen detoxification, and signaling
  • catalyze reactions, reduce oxygen