UNIT XI. NEW TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO PUBLIC HEALTH ELECTRONIC INFORMATION Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in UNIT XI. NEW TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO PUBLIC HEALTH ELECTRONIC INFORMATION Deck (107)
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1
Q

apply best practices from the latest research and use appropriate tools to enhance the quality of health care delivered.

A

Health care providers

2
Q

are defined as, a “diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate, and to create, disseminate, store and manage information.” These technologies include computers, the Internet, broadcasting technologies (radio and television), and the telephone (Blurton 2002).

A

ICTs

3
Q

is the use of ICT for health

A

eHealth

4
Q

, during the Fifty-Eight World Health Assembly (WHA), a resolution was adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) member states recognizing eHealth as the cost effective way of using ICT in health care services, health surveillance, health literature, health education and research (WHA, 2005).

A

On May 25, 2005

5
Q

Communicating with a patient through a teleconference, electronic mail (e-mail), short message service (SMS)

A

eHealth

6
Q

Recording, retrieving, and mining data in an electronic medical recording (EMR)

A

eHealth

7
Q

Providing patient teachings with the aid of electronic tools such as radio, television, computers, smartphones, and tablets.

A

eHealth

8
Q

eHealth can be considered in any of, but not limited to, the following:

A
  • Communicating with a patient through a teleconference, electronic mail (e-mail), short message service (SMS) * Recording, retrieving, and mining data in an electronic medical recording (EMR) * Providing patient teachings with the aid of electronic tools such as radio, television, computers, smartphones, and tablets.
9
Q

eHealth encompasses three main areas:

A
  • The delivery of health information, for health professionals and health consumers, through the internet and telecommunications. * Using the power of information technology (IT) and e-commerce to improve public health services, for example, through the education and training of health workers. * The use of e-commerce and e-business practices in health systems management.
10
Q

are knowledge managers

A

Nurses

11
Q

They constantly process raw patient data into valuable information to deliver evidence-based and individualized interventions.

A

Nurses

12
Q

are the fundamental elements of cognition (Gudea, 2005), and are defined as unanalyzed raw facts that do not imply meaning

A

Data

13
Q

When meaning is attributed to data and when data are processed and analyzed, then data become

A

information.

14
Q

The ____ builds heavily on the accurate recording of obtained data.

A

health care system

15
Q

may bring inconvenience especially when it comes to interoperability of health services, information backup, and instant data access.

A

Paper-based methods

16
Q

PAPER-BASED METHODS Several bigger problems may also emerge:

A
  1. Continuity interoperability of care stops in the unlikely event that a record gets misplaced. 2. Illegible handwriting poses a misinterpretation of data. 3. The patient’s privacy is compromised. 4. Data are difficult to aggregate. 5. Actual time for patient care gets limited.
17
Q

Internal and external changes affecting health care informatics (Englebardt and Nelson, 2001):

A
  1. The ability to manipulate large amounts of data 2. The ability to relate data to cohorts of people who share similar health problems 3. The ability to link to genomic data
18
Q

In contrast, having a well-managed patient information system can have the following benefits:

A
  1. Data are readily mapped, enabling more targeted interventions and feedback. 2. Data can be easily retrieved and recovered. 3. The redundancy of data is minimized. 4. Data for clinical research becomes more available. 5. Resources are used efficiently.
19
Q

This ensures that documentation reflects the event as it happened. All values should be correct and valid.

A

Accuracy

20
Q

This is a data characteristic that ascertains data availability should the patient or any member of the health care staff needs it.

A

Accessibility

21
Q

Data input should be complete. This is done by making sure that all required fields in the patient’s record are properly filled up

A

Comprehensiveness

22
Q

Having no discrepancies in data recorded makes it consistent.

A

Consistency/Reliability

23
Q

All data must be up-to-date and timely. This is exemplified when the community health nurse records data at the point of care or when it happened.

A

Currency

24
Q

Data should be properly labeled and clearly defined.

A

Definition

25
Q

In 2001, roughly ___ of the country’s population had Internet access.

A

2.5%`

26
Q

In 10 years, this rate steadily increased t0 _

A

29%

27
Q

The Philippines has also a mobile phone penetration rate of ___, with ___ subscribers as of 2009

A

80% and 73million

28
Q

The DOH has introduced several health information systems that aim to improve the accessibility of health data, such as the

A

Electronic Field Health Service Information System (DOH, 2012b), Online National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (DOH, 2012c), the Philippine Health Atlas, and the Unified Health Management Information System (DOH, 2012d).

29
Q

Budget allocation for health care is relatively small. This is one of the many reasons advancements in eHealth are postponed. ICT projects usually require a huge budget, take a long period to implement, and are occasionally seen as risky endeavors.

A

Limited health budget

30
Q

In eHealth, the cost of software procurement or development often takes up a huge portion of the budget. Also, using ready-made propriety software can be limiting at times, especially when users want to modify the software to fit their workflow better.

A

The emergence of free and open-source software

31
Q

Under RA 7160 or the Local Government Code of 1991, local government units (LGUs) are autonomous, and therefore in control of their basic health services, including the budget. Because of this, it is typical to see diverse and unrelated eHealth projects developing all over the county such as the Wireless Access for Health (WAH) in Tarlac, the Secured Health Information and Network Exchange (SHINE) in Iloilo, and the numerous CHITS installations in municipalities all over the Philippines. LGUs may develop their systems. These efforts have accelerated the development of eHealth in community health.

A

Decentralized government

32
Q

local government units (LGUs) are autonomous, and therefore in control of their basic health services, including the budget.

A

Under RA 7160 or the Local Government Code of 1991,

33
Q

eHealth is not only about technology. Along with software development and hardware procurement, staff training, and maintenance of the system are key factors in determining its effectiveness. Recognition of the cultural aspects of community life is important in starting them off in a new direction such as computerization and automation.

A

Target users are unfamiliar with the technology

34
Q

Because of logistic limitations, government hospitals and health centers are mostly understaffed despite the estimated 200,000 underemployed or unemployed nurses in the country (Mallari, 2011).

A

Surplus of “digital native” registered nurses

35
Q

One of the measures of the DOH to address the accumulation of unemployed professional nurses is the

A

Registered Nurses for Health Enhancement and Local Services (RN Heals) Project.

36
Q

It aims to provide nurses with one-year employment in underserved and remote areas in the country as well as to provide underserved areas with additional professional health workers.

A

Registered Nurses for Health Enhancement and Local Services (RN Heals) Project.

37
Q

A term coined by educator and writer ___ (2001), digital native describes a person who grew up and is familiar with digital technologies, and who uses them in daily living.

A

Marc Prensky

38
Q

The major goal of community health nursing is to ________. This is best achieved by focusing on ______

A

The major goal of community health nursing is to preserve the health of the community. This is best achieved by focusing on health promotion and health maintenance of individuals, families, and groups within the community.

39
Q

A series of health reforms have been implemented. The DOH, through ______ outlined the policy directions of Universal Health Care

A

Administrative Order No. 2010-0036,

40
Q

Also known as Kalusugan Pangkalahatan (KP) this reform agenda has three priority health directions:

A
  1. Financial risk protection through expansion in the National Health Insurance program enrolment and benefit delivery. 2. Improved access to quality hospitals and health care facilities. 3. Attainment of the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
41
Q

is to attain efficiency by using IT in all aspects of health care.

A

One of the aims of KP

42
Q

The DOH also recognizes the valuable purpose of ICT for health and has drafted its ______ for 2010-2016

A

National eHealth Strategic Framework

43
Q

are comprehensive patient records that are stored and accessed from a computer or server

A

EMRs/ Electronic Medical Records

44
Q

One of the most widely used community-based EMR in the country is ___, which began in 2004 and was funded by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC).

A

CHITS

45
Q

CHITS- It was created by ____ of the University of the PhilippinesMedical Informatics Units (UP-MIU) and is currently being implemented at health centers in Pasay, Navotas, Quezon City, and several other municipalities nationwide.

A

Dr. Herman Tolentino

46
Q

One of the five strategic goals of the DOH’s National eHealth Strategic Framework for 2010-2016 is to capitalize on ICT. This is an order to reach and provide better health services to geographically isolated and disadvantaged areas (GIDAs), to support MDG attainment, and to disseminate information to citizens and providers through telemedicine and mobile health (mHealth) services (DOH, 2012e)

A

Telemedicine

47
Q

“the delivery of health care services, where distance is a critical factor, by all health care professionals using information and communications technologies for the exchange of valid information for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease and injuries, research and evaluation, and for the continuing education of health care providers, all in the interests of advancing the health of individuals and their communities”

A

Telemedicine

48
Q

has been using telemedicine to provide health services to remote and underserved areas of the country since 2004.

A

UPM-NTHC

49
Q

Health education, which is essential in health promotion and maintenance, can be facilitated by ICT

A

eLearning

50
Q

is the use of electronic tools to aid in teaching. It can be done synchronously, or in a combination of both. This can be in the form of simple instructional videos and information text blasts to social network help groups and interactive simulations.

A

eLearning

51
Q

can be especially useful in correcting misconceptions about health and health care. It permits access to reliable information about health.

A

eLearning

52
Q

, continuing education sessions can be frequently availed of, with less time, effort, and expense involved in the process. Continuing professional education of nurses can be undertaken by attending online and virtual seminars through teleconferences and multiuser virtual environments.

A

With eLearning

53
Q

community health nurses monitor the trends of diseases through EMR, allowing for targeted interventions for health promotion, disease prevention, curative services, or rehabilitation.

A

Data and records manager

54
Q

Nurses also maintain the quality of data inputs in the EMRs, making sure that information is accurate, complete, consistent, correct, and current. Nurses also participate in regular data audits

A

Data and records manager

55
Q

by working closely with the community and implementing eHealth with them and not for them.

A

Change agent

56
Q

do not force technology on the community but inform and guide the community in selecting and applying appropriate ICT tools.

A

Change agents

57
Q

also collaborate with health leaders, policymakers, stakeholders, and other community health professionals to determine their knowledge and awareness of eHealth and appropriate ICT tools. Nurses then build on the baseline eHealth knowledge and help develop appropriate eHealth tools for the community.

A

Change agents

58
Q

Nurses provide health education to individuals and families through ICT tools (e.g., teleconference, SMS, e-mail, and virtual/simulated environment). They may also participate in making eLearning videos on specific diseases (e.g., diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis), which the patients can watch during their waiting time at health centers. Such videos may also be installed on the clients’ phones and watched at a time convenient to them. Nurses may also use scheduled text messages to patients among the catchment population to send important health information, reminders, etc.

A

Educator Nurses

59
Q

If a patient needs to be referred to a remote medical specialist through telemedicine, nurses may function

A

Telepresenter

60
Q

This means that the nurse may need to present the patient’s case to a remote medical specialist, noting salient points for case assessment, evaluation, and treatment. This usually occurs via a teleconference.

A

Telepresenter

61
Q

Community health nurses must safeguard patient records, ensuring that security, confidentiality, and privacy of all patient information are being upheld. This becomes more challenging, especially because with technology, the transfer of information can happen instantly.

A

Client advocate

62
Q

The client must also be well informed about the benefits and challenges of EMRs, telemedicine, and other eHealth tools. Nurses must ensure that personal and health information handling through eHealth (i.e., collection, storage, and transmission) is well explained. Clients must sign an informed consent, if necessary.

A

Client advocate

63
Q

Nurses must also guarantee that all eHealth interventions are performed safely and ethically, making sure that personnel involved in eHealth are competent and have received eHealth training/certification.

A

Client advocate

64
Q

Using eHealth tools, patient records can easily be retrieved and analyzed retrospectively by community eHealth nurses. They are responsible for identifying possible points for research and developing a framework, based on data aggregated by the system.

A

Researcher

65
Q

also pursues continuing nursing informatics education, to develop a research framework that will be beneficial to the community.

A

An eHealth nurse researcher

66
Q
  • Implemented in 2004 by the University of the Philippines Manila-National Telehealth Center (UPM-NTHC) through the eGovernment Fund of the Commission o Information and Communications Technology (CICT)
A

BuddyWorks

67
Q

Allowed RHU physicians in GIDAS to send telereferrals to medical specialists at the Philippine General Hospital (PGH) via short message service (SMS) and e-mail.

A

BuddyWorks

68
Q

type of BuddyWorks

A

Telemedicine and eLearning

69
Q

Developed in 2004 by Dr. Herman Tolentino of the UPM College of MedicineMedical Informatics Unit (MIU). The project initially began in Pasay health centers and has been implemented in more than 48 health centers since then

A

CHITS (Community Health Information Tracking System)

70
Q

Program is divided into different modules based on existing DOH programs (EPI, NTP) and is a Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) -

A

CHITS (Community Health Information Tracking System)

71
Q

types of CHITS (Community Health Information Tracking System)

A

Electronic medical record

72
Q

CHITS (Community Health Information Tracking System) Program is divided into different modules based on existing DOH programs

A

(EPI, NTP) and is a Free and Open Source Software (FOSS)

73
Q

An online version of the FHSIS developed by the DOH where you can upload FHSIS data.

A

eFHSIS (Electronic Field Health Service Information System)

74
Q

Type of eFHSIS (Electronic Field Health Service Information System)

A

Health information system and electronic reporting

75
Q

Developed in 2009 by the Ateneo Innovation Center

A

eIMCI (Electronic Integrated Management of Childhood Illness

76
Q

An electronic version of IMCI accessible

A

on mobile devices

77
Q

Type eIMCI (Electronic Integrated Management of Childhood Illness

A

eLearning

78
Q
  • Funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and developed by UPM-NTHC
A

NTHC e-Learning videos

79
Q

Created eLearning videos on tuberculosis, stroke, bird flu, and child poisoning

A

NTHC e-Learning videos

80
Q

type NTHC e-Learning videos

A

eLearning

81
Q

Funded by the DOST-PCHRD and developed through the collaborative efforts of the University Of the Philippines Manila-Electrical and Electronics Engineering Institute (UPM-EEEI), University of the Philippines ManilaNational Institute of Physics (UPM-NIP), and UPM-NTHC.

A

RxBox

82
Q

It is a mobile computer connected with medical devices such as ECG, pulse oximeter, and electronic blood pressure and heart rate monitors that are intended for mobile deployment to rural health centers.

A

RxBox

83
Q

It is also able to store and send patient information and allow video and chat conferencing with a medical specialist.

A

RxBox

84
Q

type RxBox

A

Telemedicine

85
Q

An electronic medical record was created for rural health units.

A

SEGRHIS (Segworks Rural Health Information System)

86
Q

Developed by Segworks, a local software company based in Davao.

A

SEGRHIS (Segworks Rural Health Information System)

87
Q

type SEGRHIS (Segworks Rural Health Information System)

A

Electronic medical record

88
Q

An electronic medical record was developed by Smart Communications.

A

SHINE (Secure Health Information Network Exchange)

89
Q

type SHINE (Secure Health Information Network Exchange)

A

Electronic medical records and SMS reporting

90
Q

Add-on to WAH (Wireless Access for Health), SPASMS is an SMS reminder system for patients who are due for follow-up.

A

SPASMS (Synchronized Patient Alert via SMS)

91
Q

type SPASMS (Synchronized Patient Alert via SMS)

A

SMS alert system

92
Q

A project of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Department of Health – Health Emergency Management Staff (DOH-HEMS).

A

SPEED (Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters)

93
Q

Allows community health nurses to submit daily reports of prevalent diseases immediately after disasters via SMS, email, and other information and communication technologies.

A

SPEED (Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters)

94
Q

also sends immediate notification alerts (INAs) to community health nurses for possible outbreaks based on available data.

A

SPEED

95
Q

type SPEED

A

Disaster management and SMS reporting

96
Q

Implemented in 2010 in the Tarlac province through the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) of Qualcom, UPMNTHC, USAID, Smart, DOH-IMS, Center for Health Development (CHD) Regin III, RTI International, National Epidemiological Center (NEC), Tarlac State University, and the local government.

A

WAH (Wireless Access for Health)

97
Q

augmented the existing CHITS by connecting health centers through broadband Internet access.

A

WAH

98
Q

Defined as a diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate, and create, disseminate, store and manage information a. eHealth
b. eLearning
c. Information and Communications Technology (ICT)
d. Electronic Medical Recording (EMR)

A

c. Information and Communications Technology (ICT)

99
Q

WHO recognizes eHealth as the cost-effective way of using ICT in the following except:
a. Health education and research
b. Health literature
c. Health care services
d. Health information

A

d. Health information

100
Q

Statement A: Nurses are knowledge managers.
Statement B: Nurses constantly process raw patient data into valuable information to deliver evidence-based and individualized interventions
a. Both statements are correct
b. Both statements are incorrect
c. Only Statement A is correct
d. Only Statement B is correct

A

a. Both statements are correct

101
Q

A well-managed patient information system can have the following benefits:
a. Data are difficult to retrieve and recover
b. Resources are used efficiently
c. Redundancy of data is maximized
d. Data for clinical research becomes limited

A

b. Resources are used efficiently

102
Q

For information to be valuable, data must have the following characteristics except:
a. Reliability
b. Currency
c. Unattainable
d. Comprehensiveness

A

c. Unattainable

103
Q

Statement A: Major goal of health nursing is to preserve education on communication.
Statement B: Preserving the health of the community can be best achieved by focusing on health promotion and health maintenance of individuals, families, and groups within the community.
a. Both statements are correct
b. Both statements are incorrect
c. Only Statement A is correct
d. Only Statement B is correct

A

d. Only Statement B is correct

104
Q

This role of a Community Health Nurses in eHealth safeguard patient records, ensuring that security, confidentiality, and privacy of all patient information are being upheld.
a. Telepresenter
b. Data and records manager
c. Change agent
d. Client advocate

A

d. Client advocate

105
Q

An electronic medical record was created for rural health units.
a. SEGRHIS (Segworks Rural Health Information System)
b. SPASMS (Synchronized Patient Alert via SMS)
c. SHINE (Secure Health Information Network Exchange)
d. WAH (Wireless Access for Health)

A

a. SEGRHIS (Segworks Rural Health Information System)

106
Q

It is also able to store and send patient information and allow video and chat conferencing with a medical specialist.
a. SEGRHIS (Segworks Rural Health Information System)
b. RxBox
c. SHINE (Secure Health Information Network Exchange)
d. NTHC e-Learning videos

A

b. RxBox

107
Q

Developed in 2009 by the Ateneo Innovation Center
a. SEGRHIS (Segworks Rural Health Information System)
b. RxBox
c. eIMCI (Electronic Integrated Management of Childhood Illness
d. NTHC e-Learning videos

A

c. eIMCI (Electronic Integrated Management of Childhood Illness)