Unit2 Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit2 Vocab Deck (29)
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1

Biological psychology

Branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior

2

Neuron

Nerve cell; basic building block of nervous system

3

Sensory neurons

Neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord

4

Motor neurons

Neurons that carry incoming info from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands

5

Interneurons

Neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs

6

Dendrite

Bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body

7

Axon

Extension of a neuron,
Ending in branching terminal fibers through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands

8

Myelin sheath

A layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one nod to the next

9

Action potential

A neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon

10

Threshold

Level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse

11

Synapse

The junction between the axon top of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at the junction is called the synaptic gap or cleft

12

Neurotransmitters

Chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether than neuron will generate a neural impulse

13

Reuptake

A neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron

14

(ACh) Acetylcholine

Role in learning/memory; messenger at every junction between a motor neuron and skeletal muscle

15

Endorphins

"Morphine within" - natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure

16

Agonist

Excites; chemical that binds to a receptor and activates it to produce a temporary high by amplifying normal sensations of arousal or pleasure.

17

Antagonist

Inhibits; binds to receptors but their effects is instead to block a neurotransmitter's functioning.

18

Electroencephalogram(EEG)

An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. Measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.

19

CT scan

A series of x ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body.

Still pics of brain structures; shows fluid damage area of brain

Dark color - fluid
White - tissue

20

PET scan

Visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task

Red/yellow - lots of activity
Blue/purple - less activity

21

MRI

A technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer generated images of soft tissue. MRI shows brain anatomy

22

fMRI

A technique for revealing blood flow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. fMRI shows brain function

23

Brain stem

Oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brain stem is responsible for automatic survival functions

24

Medulla

Base of the brain stem; controls heartbeat and breathing

25

Reticular formation

Nerve network in the brain stem that plays an important role in controlling arousal

26

Thalamus

Brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; of directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla

27

Limbic system

Doughnut shaped neural system located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives

28

Amygdala

Two Lima bean sized neural clusters in limbic system; linked to emotion

Aggression/fear

29

Hypothalamus

Directs several maintenance activists; helps govern endocrine system via pituitary gland and is linked to emotion and reward