Uptake and distribution Flashcards Preview

Summer Pharm (2016) ** > Uptake and distribution > Flashcards

Flashcards in Uptake and distribution Deck (44):
1

Uptake =

ƛ * Q * (A-v) Solubility * CO * difference in alveolar/venous partial pressures

2

Solubility's effect on the rate of rise of FA/FI curve:

Less soluble = faster rate of rise

3

Over pressurization

The use of high FD to increase the speed of FA=FI equilibration

4

Effect of CO on induction speed:

Increasing Cardiac Output = decreased speed of induction

5

Tissue uptake equation:

Uptake = tissue/blood coefficient * flow * (a-t)

6

The coefficient that most influences FA/FI rise:

Blood/Gas

7

The coefficient that most influences the FA/FI tail:

Tissue-gas

8

MAC

Minimum alveolar concentration; ED50 of inhaled anesthetics. The concentration that will produce absence of movement in 50% of the population.

9

↑ ventilation will have more of an effect on FA/FI curve for this type of agent:

Highly soluble agent

10

Effect of both ↑ ventilation and ↑ CO:

↑ ventilation has more effect (to speed induction) than ↑ CO does (to slow it)

11

If only one lung is intubated, what is the effect on the rise in FA and rise in Pa?

FA rises faster than if the ETT was in the trachea However, loss of uptake from unventilated lung leads to overall depressed ↑ in Pa

12

Higher blood-gas coefficient means:

Agent is more soluble More agent in blood = less in alveoli/brain

13

Type of gas that will washout fastest:

Least soluble

14

N2O is ____x as soluble as nitrogen:

34x

15

Places that N2O can diffuse into during surgery:

1. ETT cuff 2. Bowel obstruction 3. Pneumothorax/pneumocephalus 4. Inner ear 5. Ophtho procedures using gas bubbles 6. Air embolus

16

Another name for blood-gas partition coefficient:

Oswaldt Solubility Coefficient

17

Brain-level activity of a highly vs. minimally soluble IA:

Highly soluble: low brain activity Minimally soluble: high brain activity

18

Effect of solubility on emergence

Less soluble = faster induction/emergence More soluble = slower induction/emergence

19

Five partial pressure gradients between vaporizer and end-target tissue:

Vaporizer and inflow, Inflow and circuit, Circuit and alveoli, Alveoli and blood, Blood and tissues

20

Impact of HCT on B/G coefficient:

↓ HCT = ↓ B/G coefficient Dropping HCT from 21 --> 43 drops B/G coefficient by 20% D/t less binding sites in the blood

21

FA vs. FI:

FA = alveolar concentration FI = inspired concentration

22

FD = FI when:

High flow rate with no re-breathing

23

Make these changes to ventilation to ↑ uptake:

↓ TV, ↑ rate

24

PA of volatile anesthetic is determined by (4):

1. PI (inhaled partial pressure) 2. Alveolar ventilation 3. Breathing circuit 4. FRC

25

Normal alveolar ventilation, minute ventilation and deadspace:

Alveolar Ventilation = 4 L/min Minute ventilation = 6 L/min Dead space = 2L/min

26

Solubility's effect on the rate at which FA approaches FI:

Less soluble agents will reach equilibrium faster They have a faster rate of rise

27

Describe the FA/FI curve:

First rise: VRG uptake First knee: VRG at equilibrium Second rise: MG uptake Second knee: MG at equilibrium Third rise: FG/VPG uptake (very slow)

28

With lower solubility (

1. Gas phase 2. Blood phase

29

What determines which direction the gas will move

pressure gradients

30

How long does it take the fat compartment to reach equilibrium?

24-48 hours

31

Rate of induction/emergence of an anemic patient

Faster induction and emergence

32

What determines how quickly FA= FI ?

Solubility - less soluble = faster equilibrium

33

Partial Pressure that represents anesthetic going to the brain

FA (fraction of alveolar concentration)

34

What do we as anesthetists control

FI (fraction of inspired concentration) - the % dials

35

What is out overall goal with induction

Get the FA/FI ratio to 1:1 quickly - the faster to equilibrium - the faster the induction

36

PA (alveolar pressure ) is used to estimate 3 things

1. Depth of anesthesia 2. Recovery from anesthesia 3. Anesthetic Potency (dose) or MAC (ED50)

37

Exhaled gas readings during induction and emergence. During induction readings will be ____________ than what is set on the dial d/t ________________. During emergence the readings will be higher than what is set on the dial d/t ___________.

Induction - lower; Uptake occurring in the tissues Emergence - higher; tissue giving up previously absorbed IA

38

What has a faster induction, iso or des?

des- it is less soluble and has a faster rate of rise and therefore reaches equilibrium much faster.

39

Why does nitrous have a faster rate of rise than desflurane?

Despite des being less soluble nitrous will rise faster because of the concentration effect.

40

What opposes the effect of ventilation?

Uptake

41

A increase in CO will cause a ____________ in the FA/FI ratio. this means that the patient will be induced ___________.

Decrease Slower

42

A decrease in CO will cause a ____________ in the FA/FI ratio. this means that the patient will be induced ___________.

Increase Faster

43

Changes in CO will have a greater effect on the ____________ soluble agents. Why?

More soluble. They have more time to equilibrate with the passing blood.

44

Changes in ventilation will have greater effects on ______________ agents. Why?

More Soluble. Alveolar pressure will build up much faster in both, but the rate of rise will increase more for the highly soluble agents.