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Flashcards in Urban Issues And Challenges Deck (34):

What is urbanisation?

The increase in proportion of people living in urban areas in comparison to rural areas.


What is a megacity? Examples?

A city with a population of over 10 million.
-New York


Why do HICs have slower urban growth than LICs?

Because HICs have already urbanised whereas LICSs are currently still urbanising.


What are the two factors that affect urbanisation?

-natural increase


What is migration?

The movement of population from one area to another. Rural to urban migration is from the countryside to city areas.


What is a push factor?

something that can force or encourage people to move away from and area. E.g. Drought, flooding, lack of employment, war


What is a pull factor?

Something which encourages people to move away from an area. E.g. More job opportunities, closer to health services, higher standard for of living in city


What is natural increase?

People having babies. Natural increase has a major effect on rates of urbanisation. Birth rates are very high. Can increase as death rates fall. Result of:
-better medical care
-improved food supply
-improved wealth


Describe the location of rio

-south of the equator
-very close to Tropic of Capricorn
-Southern Hemisphere
-South America
-south east of Brazil
-near coast


What is rios international importance?

2016 olympics


What is rios national importance?

Second largest city for industry


What is rios regional importance?

Important culture
Carnivals beaches


Why has rio grown

Rural to urban migration - people from country moving to city for a better life


Economic opportunities:

Manufacturing- wide range of products e.g. Steel, Volta redonda steel woks biggest in South America
Oil refining- rio refined 2 mil barrels per day
Service industries- e.g. Education, health care, 60% of employment in rio in service sector
Tourism- contributes $6.5 bill to rios economy, generates 52,600 jobs


What are the types of employment in rio?

Port industries
Service industries
Oil refining


Rio olympics: opportunities:

New sports facilities
New museums
Cleaning up bay


Rio olympics: challenges:

Nearly bankrupted city
Money not going into important things
Knocking down favelas
Couldn't keep promises of keeping water clean


Social challenges: How is education in rio an issue?

-only compulsory for 6-14 y/o
-in rio only half of children continued their education beyond 14
-many drop out, get involved in drug trafficking
-shortage of school nearby
-lack of money and need to work
-shortage of teachers-poor training
-can't get good jobs


What's been done for education in rio

-encouraging local people to volunteer in schools
-giving school grants to poor families
-Opening favela in favela roncinha


Social challenges: how is water supply an issue in rio?

-12% rio didn't have access to running water
-estimated 37% of water lost through leaky pipes-became worse in recent years
-no access to clean water
-situation becoming worse


What's been done for water supply in rio?

-trying to improve quality + quantity of water in favelas
-seven new treatment plants built between 1998 and 2014
-by 2014 95% had means of a water supply


Social challenges: how is energy and challenge in rio?

-whole city suffers blackouts due to shortage of electricity
-growing population + olympics make situation worse
-many people get their electricity by tapping into the main supply - illegal + unsafe
- homes without power may not be able to cook
- someone could be electrocuted


What's been done for energy in rio?

-installed 60km of new power lines
-built a new nuclear generator
-developed new simplicio hyrdio-electric complex - increase rios supply by 30%
-took 6 years to build, cost $2 billion


Social challenges: how's is healthcare an issue in rio?

-2013, 55% of city has local family health clinic and services for pregnant women and elderly were very poor
-infant mortality rates high
-average life expectancy low


What been done about healthcare in rio?

-tried to improve healthcare in favela Marta -13km away from hospital
-medical staff took health kits to people's homes


What is the informal economy?

Unofficial jobs e.g. Selling scraps


Advantages of the informal economy:

-provide people with money who might not otherwise have a job
-allows them to do what they want


Disadvantages of the informal economy:

-not paying tax -country not improving
-not insured


Economic challenges: how's unemployment a problem in rio?

-hit by deep recession in 2015
-increased unemployment
-richest 1% earns 12% of local income
-unemployment rates in favela over 20%
Why an issue:
-poor education + healthcare
-most work in informal economy -poorly paid, irregular
-don't pay taxes


What's been done to tackle unemployment in rio?

-Using education to reduce unemployment in youth
-schools of tomorrow programme aims to improve education for poor people


Economic challenges: how is crime an issue in rio?

-murder, kidnapping, car jacking, armed assault occur regularly
-powerful gangs -drug trafficking in favelas
-Disturbs people's lives
-puts off tourists
-scare people
-influences youths


What's being done about crime?

-2013 pacifying police units established to reclaim favelas from drug dealers
-police have taken control of crime dominated complexo do alemão and 30 smaller favelas


Environmental challenges: how is traffic congestion an issue in rio?

-causes air pollution-causes 5000 deaths
-city covered in brown smog
-most congested city in South America
-number of cars grown to 40%
-increases stress and pollution levels
-wastes times for commuters and business


What's been done about traffic congestion?

-expansion of the metro system
-new roads into city centre
-making coast roads one way during rush hour to improve traffic flow