Flashcards in Urbanisation Deck (22):
What is urbanisation?
Growth of people living in urban(city) areas.
What is rural-urban migration?
Movement of people from the countryside to the cities.
Why do people in poorer countries move to the cities?
Shortage of services (schools access to water etc) in rural areas.
More jobs in urban areas, as there is a larger workforce and infrastructure.
Why do people in richer countries move to the cities?
Move for work, as cities became industrialised and machines replaced farm hands.
Left cities due to run down nature. Now they are being redeveloped so attracting back.
What are some other reasons for moving to cities?
Young move to cities for work. They have children here, so population increases.
Also better healthcare meaning they live longer.
What are the four main parts of a city?
Rural urban fringe
Describe the CBD
Commercial centre of the city or town. Shops and offices. Where transport routes meet. High land values due to competition. Buildings are tall and dense.
Pedestrianised to increase visitors.
Halifax has west gate as an example.
Has different zones i.e. Theatre zone.
Describe the inner city
Grew at the start of the industrial revolution. Factories and industry built here. River provides energy and water for industry.
Terraced houses built quickly and easily. E.g. Kings cross.
Low order stores here.
High density housing and streets in grid iron pattern.
Many areas redeveloped industrial buildings. Brownfield sites.
Describe the suburbs.
Came with the development of cars and those who could afford could move away from the polluted inner city and live better.
Semi detached houses with gardens and garages. Pavements bigger.
Lower housing density.
Bus routes meant poorer people could be rehoused to council estates in the suburbs. Ie Copley.
Describe the rural urban fringe
Where the urban area meets the countryside.
Need panning permission to build. Protected by green belt policy.
Conflicts between industry, farmers and homeowners.
Outline some problems and solution for Halifax CBD
Car parking Broad street
Anti social behaviour Street angels
White rose shopping centre
Pedestrianise broad street
Attract high order shops new bus and rail station, greenery, services
Congestion One way system and bus lanes
Name a variety of solutions to reduce traffic
Improve public transport and links
Increase car parking charges in cities to discourage use.
Bus priority lanes to speed up bus journeys and encourage their use.
Pedestrianisation. Reduces traffic and makes more attractive.
What are some reasons for ethnic segregation?
People prefer to live with others of the same background and language
People live near important services ie religious buildings and so group together
Ethnic backgrounds are often restricted for choice due to money issues.
What are some ways to support local ethnic minorities?
Print leaflets of services in variety of languages.
Involving leaders of ethnic communities in important local decisions.
Interpreters at police stations and hospitals.
Suitable services for religions.
What is a squatter settlement?
Settlements built illegally around he city generally in poorer areas.
Badly built and overcrowded. No running water or electricity supply.
Favelas in Brazil.
What is life like in a squatter settlement?
Hard and dangerous. No proper sewers or electricity.
Lack police, medical and fire aid.
Life expectancy lower.
Informal non policed jobs, work longer hours for less pay.
Have strong community spirit.
What are the three main ways to improve squatter settlements?
Selfhelp schemes - gov supplies building materials and local people build with them. Better housing. Labour costs can be used for electricity and water supplies.
Site and service schemes - pay small rent for a site, and are supplied with materials to build and improve the site. Money for rent used to provide services ie electricity.
Local authority schemes - local economy improving temporary houses. E.g. Rio spent over 100 million on the favela projects.
What are some ways to make a city more sustainable?
Schemes to reduce waste and dispose of it. More recycling. Metals can be reused. Safe disposal reduces air and water pollution.
Conserving historic buildings and natural areas. Natural environments protected and used. Green space left alone. E.g. Parks.
Develop brownfield sites (old industrial buildings) so green space isn't used up. More attractive.
Building carbon neutral homes e.g. Bedzed, solar panels etc
Efficient public transport means fewer cars on the road and less pollution.
What helps to make sustainable schemes succeed?
The involvement of locals.
What is BEDZED?
Sustainable housing urban village
Zero energy development
How is bedzed eco friendly?
No fires and hearing, uses rainwater and insulation for warmth.
Triple wall thickness.
Wind capturing fans.
Collect rainwater for use.