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Flashcards in urchin/mussel Deck (33)
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1
Q

what are the three species of urchin?

A

franciscanus, purpuratus, droebachiensis

2
Q

who said ‘ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny’, what does it explain?

A

Ernst Haeckel, 1834

-the similarities between humans and other animals

3
Q

what is ontogeny

A

the origin and development of an individual organism from embryo to adult

4
Q

what is phylogeny

A

the evolutionary history of a species

5
Q

name some protostomes.

  • what sort of cleavage?
  • blastopore=
A

mollusks, annelids, arthropods

  • spiral
  • blastopore=mouth
6
Q

name some deuterostomes

  • what sort of cleavage?
  • blastopore=
A

-echinoderms, chordates
-radial
-anus
anus

7
Q

what sort of spawners are urchins?

A

broadcast

8
Q

urchin= meiotic or mitotic development?

A

meiotic

9
Q

when do urchin spawn?

A

when the conditions are right:

  • temp
  • food
  • sperm
10
Q

chemotaxis

A

the movement of an organism in response to a chemical stimulus (ie: urchin spawning)

11
Q

cortical granule reaction

A

the slow block of an urchin’s egg from sperm, prevents polyspermy

12
Q

how many cells develop in the blastula of an urchin?

A

128

13
Q

what is gastrulation?

A

when the cells devide into the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm

14
Q

name the stages from an egg to a pleuteus urchin larvae?

A

egg, zygote, celled (2,4, 8, etc), blastula, gastrula, prism (starts to feed), early pluteus (4 arm), 6 arm, 8 arm

15
Q

what time of year would you collect your Mytilus broodstock?

A

April-May for protected waters, pacific coast in fall and winter

16
Q

what sort of spawners are mytilus? what type of morphism? meiotic or mitotic?

A

broadcast
externally monomorphic
meiosis

17
Q

name ways of inducing spawning for mussels

A
  • temp shocks (7C-18C)
  • micro algae
  • pH modification
  • pegs
  • pricking posterior adductor
  • KCI
  • shaking
  • sperm
  • ripping byssal threads
  • aeration
18
Q

describe a mussel’s oocyte

A

dark, uniform, clean, sharp contour

19
Q

why do you filter the female mussel eggs before spawning?

A

to ensure dissociation for spawning

20
Q

what should the egg:sperm ratio be for mytilus? why?

A

1 egg for 10 sperm.

prevent polyspermy

21
Q

how do you know that fertilization was successful for mytilus?

A

a fertilization envelope develops

22
Q

after how many hours does mytilus reach gastrulation?

A

10

23
Q

describe a pediveliger

A
  • large velum for feeding/swimming
  • ciliated palp for sorting food
  • gill fillaments
  • mouth, esophagus, stomach, etc
  • thin mantle that secretes shell
  • foot, byssus secretion
  • sensory pigment spots
24
Q

why does mytilus make good aquaculture?

A
  • high fercudity
  • free swimming larvae
  • fast growth
  • low predation/disease
  • byssus
25
Q

name the four species of mussels

A
Mytilus
-trossulus
-galloprovincialis (Mediterranean)
-edulis
Perna
-canaliculus
26
Q

how are galloprovincialis different rom edulis?

A
  • umbos turned downward
  • basal line of shell concave
  • valves are higher and less angular on the upper margin
  • mantle edge darker
27
Q

galloprovincialis:

  • range of salinity
  • range of temperature
  • time to maturity
A

4-8-36ppt
15-20-29*C
12-18months

28
Q

where is the green shelled mussel endemic to?

A

new Zealand.

Perna canaliculus

29
Q

name five different methods of culturing mussels

A
  • spat catching rope (looks like long line between floats)
  • on bottom (on rocks, substrate, etc)
  • bouchots (4-7m long posts, wrap around it longitudinaly)
  • long line culture
  • raft culture
30
Q

what province is responsible for most of Canada’s mussel production?

A

PEI, 72%

31
Q

what are different settling structures for commercial mussels?

A
  • mesh socks
  • attached to ropes
  • anchored to a buoy
  • subtidal
32
Q

how long does it take mussels to reach market?

A

18months-3years

33
Q

why are mussels good for aquaculture?

A
  • sustainable
  • filter feeders
  • vegetarians