Urinary System Flashcards Preview

Urinary System Asses chap 45 TEST 3 > Urinary System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Urinary System Deck (66)
Loading flashcards...
1

Dysuria

Pain when urinating

2

What should the nurse do if urine dipstick test shows protein in urine?

Ask what meds patient takes, medication can affect testing.

3

Nephron

Functional unit of the kidney

4

GFR

Amount of blood filtered per minute by the kidneys ( normal is 125 mL/ min)

5

Costovertebral angle (cva)

Landmark useful in locating kidneys- formed by rib cage and vertebral column.

6

Anuria

Urine output < 100 mL per 24 hrs.
Basically no urine

7

Enuresis

Involuntary nocturnal urination

8

Oliguria

Scant urine
100-400mL per day

9

Polyuria

Large amount of urine in a given time

10

Why is acetazolazide given?

To alkalize urine

11

Why is mannitol given?

To decrease intracranial pressure
( for cerebral edema)

12

2 side effects of furosemide Lasix- loop diuretic

Remember works on loop of Henley ( loops lose calcium!)

Ototoxicity ( ringing ears)
Hypokalemia

Will remove calcium, chloride ect.

13

Hydrochlorothiazide

Works on distal convoluted tubule.
Calcium SPARING

14

Triamterene

Potassium SPARING. Gets rid of sodium

15

Spironolactone

Potassium sparing. Could cause hyperkalemia.
S/E gynocomastia
Arythmia.

16

Causes of kidney damage?

Acute:
dehydration
Hypovolemia

Chronic:
Diabetes
Renal artery stenosis

17

Acute renal failure- cause of prerenal?

Poor renal perfusion

Hypovolemia
Injury
Dehydration
Heart failure

18

A renal stone in the pelvis of the kidney will alter the function of the kidneys by interfering with

The collection and drainage of urine from the kidney

19

Intrarenal
Direct damage

Pyelonephritis
Infections
Nephrotoxic medications
Direct injury

20

Post renal
Urinary obstruction

BPH
Renal stone
Stricture
( anything that causes stasis)

21

Renal failure

Retain waste products
Sodium
Potassium

22

What happens in chronic kidney disease

Malaise
Hypertension
Proteinuria
Hyperkalemia -arrhythmia
Mineral and bone disorders
Neuropathy
Metabolic acidosis
Severe uremia- pruritis , CNS depression
Edema
Oliguria


23

A patient with kidney disease has oliguria and a creatinine clearance 40 ML per minute. These findings most directly reflect abnormal function of

Glomerular filtration

24

The nurse identifies a risk for urinary calculi in a patient who relates a past history that includes

Hyperparathyroidism

25

Diminished ability to concentrate urine, associated with aging of the urinary system, is attributed to

Decreased function of the loop of Henley and tubules

26

During the physical assessment of the urinary system the nurse

Auscultated over each CVA to detect impaired renal bloodflow

27

Severe uremia

Pruritis
CNS depression

28

Normal findings expected by the nurse on physical assessment of the urinary system include

A nonpalpable left kidney and no CVA tenderness elicited by kidney punch

29

A diagnostic study that indicates renal bloodflow, glomerular filtration, tubular function, and excretion is

A renal scan

30

Dialysis

Major fluid shifts! Monitor BP
No BP IN ARM with shunt
Thrill and bruit

Can feel a thrill!
Auscultation for bruit!

31

Pyelonephritis

Assessment:
Dysuria
Fever
Fatigue
Flank pain
N & V

32

I'm reading the urinalysis results of a dehydrated patient, the nurse would expect to find

Specific gravity of 1.035

33

Glomerulonephritis

Inflammation of the glomeruli which affects both kidneys equally and is 3rd leading cause of ESKD in the US.

34

Foods high in purine

Sardines, mussels, liver, kidney, meat soups sweetbreads.

Medium levels- chicken , salmon, crab

35

Foods high in calcium

Milk, fish with bones, dried fruits, nuts, ovaltine, chocolate.

36

High oxalate foods

Dark roughage, spinach, rhubarb, cabbage, celery, parsley, chocolate, instant coffee, tea

37

When teaching a patient with pyelonephritis about the disorder the nurse informed the patient that the organisms that cause Pyelonephritis most commonly reach the kidneys through

And ascending infection

38

The immunologic mechanisms involved in a post streptococcal glomerulonephritis include

Thickening of the GBM from auto immune microangiographic changes

39

The edema that occurs in nephrotic syndrome is due to

Decrease colloidal osmotic pressure caused by loss of serum albumin

40

A patient has admitted to the hospital with severe renal colic. The nurse is first priority and management of the patient is to

Administer opioids as prescribed

41

A patient with a Ureterolithotomy returns from surgery with the nephrostomy tube in place. Post operative nursing care of the patient includes

Encouraging fluids of at least 2 to 3 L per day after nausea has subsided

42

A patient has had a cystectomy and ilio conduit diversion performed. Four days postoperatively, mucus threads are seen in the drainage bag. The nurse should

Chart that has a normal observation

43

What descriptions characterize acute kidney injury

The primary cause of death is infection and the disease course is usually reversible

44

RIFLE defines three stages of a KIA based on changes in the

Serum creatinine or urine output from baseline

45

During the oliguric phase of AKI, the nurse managers the patient for

ECG changes and pulmonary edema

46

If a patient is in the diuretic phase of AKI, the nurse must monitor for which serum electrolytes and balances?

Hypokalemia and hypo natremia

47

A patient is admitted to the hospital with chronic kidney disease. The nurse understands that this condition is characterized by

Progressive irreversible destruction of the kidneys

48

Nurses need to teach patients at risk for developing chronic kidney disease. Individuals considered to be at risk include

Older African-Americans, patients over 60 years old, those with a history of hypertension, and those with a history of type two diabetes

49

Patients with chronic kidney disease experience an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease related to

Hypertension, vascular calcification's, and hyper insulinemia causing dyslipidemia

50

Nutritional support and management or essential across the entire continuum of chronic kidney disease. Which statements would be considered true related to nutritional therapy?

Fluid is usually restricted for patients receiving peritineal dialysis, sodium and potassium maybe restricted in someone with advanced chronic kidney disease, decreased fluid intake and low potassium diet or hallmarks of the diet for a patient receiving hemodialysis

51

And ESKD patient receiving hemodialysis is considering asking a relative to donate a kidney for transportation. In assisting the patient to make a decision about treatment, the nurse informed the patient that

A successful transplantation usually provides better quality of life than that offered by dialysis

52

To assess the patency of a newly placed arteriovenous graft for dialysis, the nurse should

Palpate the area of the graph to fill a normal thrill, listen with the stethoscope over the graph to detect a bruit, frequently monitor the pulses and neurovascular status distal to the graft

53

A major advantage of peritoneal dialysis is

The diet is less restricted and dialysis can be performed at home

54

A kidney transplant pt complains of having fever, chills, and dysuria over the past two days. What is the first action that the nurse should take

Assess the temperature and initiate work up to rule out infection

55

Acute kidney injury

Sudden loss of renal function due to poor circulation or renal cell damage

- usually reversible

56

Which of the following patients highest risk for a urinary tract infection?1
Grade: 1
A 78-year- old female with dementia and incontinence
A 23-year- old female with anemia and history of inguinal hernia repair
A 78-year- old male with urinary urgency
A 56-year- old female with uterine prolapse

A 78-year- old female with dementia and incontinence

57

Glomerulonephritis is _____________.1


An inflammatory disorder of the glomerulus caused by immunological reaction

58

Your patient is receiving peritoneal dialysis. Which of the following should you report to the physician immediately?

Cloudy outflow

59

Which statement from a patient would cause you to suspect renal calculi?

“I have sudden sharp pain that goes from my back to my testicles.”

60

Which of the following is an important dietary recommendation for patients with chronic kidney disease?

low potassium

61

The signs and symptoms of your patient with acute kidney injury result from the kidneys inability to regulate fluid and electrolytes. True or false?

TRUE

62

The most common cause of acute kidney injury is from the prerenal phase. What is this?

decrease in blood flow to the kidney

63

Your dialysis patient has a fistula. You assess for a bruit and a thrill but do not hear/feel it. What is your first step before calling the physician?

There is not a nursing intervention; you must call the MD for further orders

64

_______________ is the most common cause of urosepsis.

use of urinary catheter

65

Nephrotic syndrome is __________________.

a kidney disease where protein is lost by plasma into the urine

66

For stable patient with chronic kidney disease that is continuing to decompensate, what will most likely be initiated?

dialysis