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Flashcards in Utilitarianism Deck (15)
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1

The Hedonic Caculus includes:

Fecundity, Extent, Duration, Purity, Propinquity, Intensity and Certainty

2

Fecundity is?

How likely it is that the pleasure from an action will be followed by similar pleasures

3

Propinquity measures?

How close the pleasure is in time and space.

4

Who believes in Rule Utilitarianism and what is it?

John Mill - higher and lower pleasures It's qualitative.

5

Is utilitarianism teleological or deontological?

Teleological

6

Who believes in Act Utilitarianism and what is it?

Jeremy Bentham - Hedonic Calculus, quantitative

7

Criticisms of Act Utilitarianism

Time and resource consuming.
Justifies any action.
Can be biased.
Not possible to assess every situation.
Difficult to take into account the effect on others/ in the long run.

8

Criticisms of Rule Utilitarianism

Rules might be pointless or immoral.
Minorities aren't accounted for.

9

Hedonism

Bentham believes humans are motivated by pleasure

10

Positives of Act Utilitarianism

Flexible - takes into account individual situations.
A good action is one that leads to the greatest good in that situation.
Leads to greatest result in the community.
Not as time consuming.
Still has absolute right and wrongs.

11

Examples of higher pleasures

Pleasures that stimulate the mind: learning, art, literature, opera.

12

Higher pleasures bring happiness?

In the long run

13

Mill believed Bentham's utilitarianism does what?

It reduces humans - he thinks we have more than basic animal instincts.

14

Utilitarianism and religion both

Aim to maximise happiness and welfare for everyone.
Both aim to bring the 'greatest' happiness.

15

Utilitarianism is different to religion

It has no rules.
It has no moral absolutes.
It's teleological (Christianity is denteological)
Main goals are happiness and pleasure.
People have to be autonomous agents (eg. not a baby or a person in a coma)