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what is active immuntiy?

Active immunity results when exposure to a disease organism triggers the immune system to produce antibodies to that disease. Exposure to the disease organism can occur through infection with the actual disease (resulting in natural immunity), or introduction of a killed or weakened form of the disease organism through vaccination (vaccine-induced immunity). Either way, if an immune person comes into contact with that disease in the future, their immune system will recognize it and immediately produce the antibodies needed to fight it.

Active immunity is long-lasting, and sometimes life-long.


what is passive immunity

Passive immunity is provided when a person is given antibodies to a disease rather than producing them through his or her own immune system.

A newborn baby acquires passive immunity from its mother through the placenta. A person can also get passive immunity through antibody-containing blood products such as immune globulin, which may be given when immediate protection from a specific disease is needed. This is the major advantage to passive immunity; protection is immediate, whereas active immunity takes time (usually several weeks) to develop.

However, passive immunity lasts only for a few weeks or months. Only active immunity is long-lasting.


Herd immunity?

Protect unvaccinated individuals, through having sufficiently large proportion of population vaccinated
Vaccinated individuals stop transmission of organism
Proportion required to be immune derived mathematically, based on:
Transmissibility and infectiousness of organism
Social mixing in population

Requires that there is no other reservoir of infection


what vaccines are live?

OPV, measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, rotavirus, zoster, flu

attenuated organism, replicates in host


what are the types of inactive vaccine?

Suspensions of killed organisms
Subunit vaccines
Conjugate vaccines


give example of the Suspensions of killed organisms vaccine

whole cell pertussis (whooping cough), whole cell typhoid


example of Subunit vaccines

. diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid


example of Conjugate vaccines

polysaccharide attached to immunogenic proteins
e.g. Hib, MenC


contraindications for vaccines

Confirmed anaphylaxis reaction to previous dose of same antigen or vaccine component
Live vaccines:
-Immunosuppression (primary, radiotx, high-dose steroids/other drugs, HIV)
Egg allergy (yellow fever, flu)
Severe latex allergy
Acute or evolving illness – defer till resolved/ stabilised


when can a live vaccine not be given?

-Immunosuppression (primary, radiotx, high-dose steroids/other drugs, HIV)


when is MMR given

after 1 year - because material abs


HPV when is it given

12-13 years girls


what bacteria causes dithptheria

aerobic gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae


what the 5 in 1 vaccine cover?

covering diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)


what causes meningococcal disease

Neisseria meningitidis


after effects of meningitis

persistent neurological defects including hearing loss, speech disorders, loss of limbs and paralysis.


what is Elimination of disease

Reduction to zero of the incidence of a specified disease in a defined geographical area as a result of deliberate efforts; continued intervention measures are required. Example: neonatal tetanus.


what is the eradication of disease

Permanent reduction to zero of the worldwide incidence of infection caused by a specific agent as a result of deliberate efforts; intervention measures are no longer needed. Example: smallpox.


what is the extinction of a disease

The specific infectious agent no longer exists in nature or in the laboratory. Example: none.


out of eradication, extinction and elimination which order do they go in

elimination, then eradication, then extinction