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Pharmacology > Vaccines > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vaccines Deck (39)
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1
Q

when an antibody is given to protect against infection, it is ______ ______

A

passive immunization

2
Q

stimulation of the immune system to produce antigen-specific humoral and cell immunity is ______ ______

A

active immunity

3
Q

live viruses must be able to _______ in order to stimulate an immune response

A

replicate

4
Q

live vaccines may cause severe or fatal reactions as a result of uncontrolled replication of the virus - this only occurs in the _________

A

immunodeficient (leukemia, HIV)

5
Q

newborns have circulating maternal antibodies, so they cannot receive ______ ______

A

live vaccines

6
Q

sometimes patients don’t respond to the first dose of the vaccine, so a ___________ is recommended

A

second dose (MMR or varicella)

7
Q

inactivated, non-replicating vaccines may be either ______ or bacteria, or ____

A

whole viruses

fractions of either

8
Q

inactivated vaccines are produced by growing the bacterium or virus in ______ ______, then inactivating it with heat/chemicals. Much _______, can be given to immunocompromised, pregnant

A

culture media

safer

9
Q

inactivated virus alway require _____ _____. Acts to prime the immune system.

A

multiple doses

10
Q

antibody titers against inactivated antigens _______ with time. Some require periodic supplemental doses (boost)

A

diminish

11
Q

fractional vaccines are either __________ or _______ based

A

protein or polysaccharide

12
Q

young children do not consistently respond to ________ antigens

A

polysaccharide

13
Q

conjugate polysaccharide vaccines are when the ________ is chemically linked to a _____, making it more potent (T-cell independent to T cell dependent). Polysaccharide do not “____”, whereas protein do

A

polysaccharide

protein

14
Q

antibody induced with polysaccharide has ____ functional activity than that induced by _____ antigens. The predominant antibody produced in response to polysacc. is IgM, and little IgG is produced

A

less

protein

15
Q

inactivated vaccines are NOT affected by circulating antibody to the antigen. But, live vaccine _____ be affected, they must be able to replicate

A

may

Must wait 2 weeks before giving the antibody after a live vaccine

16
Q

all vaccines can be _________ at the same visit as all other vaccines

A

administered

17
Q

If not simultaneous, then all LIVE vaccines must be separated by _____ weeks

A

4

18
Q

In a live vaccines, the first dose provides _______. The 2nd dose ensure _____

A

protection

100%

19
Q

in an inactive vaccine, the first dose does not provide ________, it doesn’t happen until the ___ or ___ dose

A

protection

2 or 3

20
Q

Local reactions are the most common, least severe. Pain, ____, ____. Common with _______ vaccine

A

redness, swelling
inactivated
common in DTaP 4 or 5

21
Q

in systemic reactions, ____, malaise, headache occur. More common with _______ vaccines

A

fever

attenuated

22
Q

we vaccinate for diphtheria because it is easily ______ (person - person) and the mortality is ________

A

transmitted

high

23
Q

vaccinate for tetanus because it is ______ (soil, dust, manure). Causes lockjaw, difficulty ______, muscle rigidity, ______

A

fatal

swallowing, spasms

24
Q

we vaccinate for pertussis because it is highly ______, makes people vulnerable to a secondary infection (bacterial pneumonia)

A

contagious

25
Q

we vaccinate for polio to prevent _______ and _____

A

aseptic meningitis and paralysis

26
Q

H Influenza B is a ____________ vaccine immunize bc it causes invasive disease: _______ and ________

A

conjugate polysaccharide

meningitis and epiglottitis

27
Q

prior to vaccine _________ was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis

A

H influenza

28
Q

H Influenza b is a ______-____ conjugate vaccine so the immunity is improved

A

polysaccharide-protein

29
Q

vaccinate against measles because it causes _______ and ______

A

pneumonia and encephalitis

30
Q

vaccinate agains mumps because it can cause _______, which can cause infertility

A

orchitis

31
Q

vaccinate against rubella (maculopapular rash) because it can cause ______ (transplacental leads to fetal damage)

A

viremia

32
Q

we vaccinate against chickenpox because it’s an _______ issue (parent stays home to take care of child)

A

inconvenience (morbidity)

33
Q

we vaccinate against hep A because its fecal-oral, get very ill. Vaccinate _______ bc they are resorvoirs

A

kids

34
Q

if you have hepatitis B, you’ll have chronic ________/cirrhosis and you wouldn’t know

A

viremia

35
Q

Vaccinate against influenza because it can cause ______ _______

A

bacterial pneumonia

36
Q

vaccinate against pneumonococcal disease because children are adults are high risk. _____ and hosital acquired pneumonia

A

CAP

37
Q

meningococcal is a polysaccharide vaccine in the kids, but a _______ in adults

A

conjugate. Mortaility is 9-12%

38
Q

HPV is the most common STI in the US. We vaccinate because of ______ _____

A

cervical cancer

39
Q

we vaccinate against rotavirus because _____________

A

dehydration kills (and loss of electrolytes)