Valvular Disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Valvular Disease Deck (153)
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1

Patients with mitral stenosis, left atrial enlargement and atrial fibrillation are at an increased risk for the development of:
A. Left Ventricular Thrombus
B. Left Atrial Myxoma
C. Left Atrial Thrombus
D. Left Ventricular dilatation

C. Left Atrial Thrombus

2

Typical echocardiographic findings in a patient with isolated rheumatic mitral stenosis including all of the following EXCPET:
A. Left Atrial thrombus
B. Left Atrial enlargement
C. "D" shaped Left Ventricle
D. Dilated left ventricle

D. Dilated Left Ventricle

3

Mitral stenosis is considered to be severe by all of the following criteria EXCEPT:
A. MV Doppler A wave peak velocity >1.3 m/s
B. MV Area <1.0 cm2
C. MPG >10 mmHg
D. PHT >220

A. MV Doppler A wave peak velocity >1.3 m/s

4

Congestive heart failure in a patient with significant chronic mitral regurgitation occurs because of increased pressure in the:
A. Aorta
B. Left Atrium
C. Left Ventricle
D. Right Ventricle

B. Left Atrium

5

Conditions that may lead to clinical symptoms that mimic those associated with rheumatic mitral stenosis include:
A. Aortic stenosis
B. Pericardial effusion
C. Left Atrial Myxoma
D. Ventricular atrial myxoma

C. Left Atrial Myxoma

6

Chronic significant mitral regurgitation may result in all of the following EXCPET:
A. LAE
B. LVE
C. MAC
D. LV volume overload pattern

C. MAC

7

A strong indication for mitral stenosis on 2D echo is an anterior mitral valve leaflet that exhibits:
A. Reverse Doming
B. Systolic Bowing
C. Diastolic Doming
D. Coarse, chaotic diastolic motion

C. Diastolic doming

8

The classic description of the murmur of chronic mitral regurgitation is:
A. Diastolic decrescendo murmur heard best at LSB
B. Continuous machinery-like murmur
C. Systolic ejection murmur best heard at RUSB
D. Holosystolic murmur best heard at the apex radiating to the axilla

D. Holosystolic murmur best heard at the apex radiating to the axilla

9

The most common presenting symptom of significant chronic mitral regurgitation is:
A. Dyspnea
B. Ascites
C. Systemic embolization
D. Hemoptysis

A. Dyspnea

10

The most common etiology of mitral stenosis in adults is:
A. Left atrial myxoma
B. Severe MAC
C. Congenital
D. Rheumatic Fever

D. Rheumatic Fever

11

The cardiac valves listed in decreasing order as they are affected by rheumatic heart disease are:
A. Mitral, Aortic, Tricuspid, Pulmonic
B. Aortic, Pulmonic, Tricuspid, Mitral
C. Pulmonic, Aortic, Tricuspid, Mitral
D. Tricuspid, Mitral, Pulmonic, Aortic

A. Mitral, Aortic, Tricuspid, Pulmonic

12

All of the following are causes for chronic mitral regurgitation EXCPET:
A. Ruptured papillary muscle
B. Cleft MV
C. Rheumatic heart disease
D. MAC

A. Ruptured papillary muscle

13

Signs and symptoms of mitral stenosis secondary to rheumatic heart disease include:
A. Vertigo
B. Cyanosis
C. Pulmonary Hypertension
D. Angina Pectoris

C. Pulmonary Hypertension

14

M-mode and 2D findings associated with significant chronic mitral regurgitation include all of the following EXCEPT:
A. LAE
B. LV volume overload pattern
C. LVE
D. Fine diastolic fluttering of the mitral valve

D. Fine diastolic fluttering of the mitral valve

15

The classic cardiac doppler features of mitral valve stenosis including all the following EXCEPT:
A. Increased PHT
B. Turbulent Flow
C. Increased E velocity
D. Increased mitral valve area

D. Increased mitral valve area

16

The most accurate method for determining the severity of mitral valve stenosis is:
A. Determining the max velocity across the MV by PW Doppler
B. Performing planimetry of the MV orifice by 2D echocardiography
C. Measuring the E-F slope of the anterior MV leaflet by M-mode
D. Measuring the thickness of the MV leaflets

B. Performing planimetry of the MV orifice by 2D echocardiography

17

2D echocardiographic examination reveals thin mobile mitral valve leaflet tips and a Doppler E velocity of 1.8 m/s with a PHT of 180 msec in an elderly patient. The most likely diagnosis is:
A. Abnormal relaxation of the LV
B. Aortic regurgitation
C. Rheumatic mitral stenosis
D. Moderate to Severe MAC

D. Moderate to severe MAC

18

2D echocardiographic findings for rheumatic mitral stenosis include all of the following EXCPET:
A. Increased LA dimension
B. Hockey-stick appearance of the AMVL
C. Thickened MV leaflets and subvalvular apparatus
D. Reverse doming of the AMVL

D. reverse doming of the AMVL

19

Systolic bowing of the inter-atrial septum toward the right atrium throughout the cardiac cycle may be an indication of:
A. Tricuspid Atresia
B. Tricuspid Stenosis
C. Tricuspid Regurgitation
D. Mitral Regurgitation

D. Mitral Regurgitation

20

Possible signs and symptoms associated with acute severe mitral regurgitation include:
A. Anasarca
B. Pulmonary edema
C. Systemic embolization
D. Hemoptysis

B. Pulmonary Edema

21

The abnormal mitral valve PHT for patients with mitral valve stenosis is:
A. 60 to 90 msec
B. 0 to 30 msec
C. 30 to 60 msec
D. 90 to 400 msec

D. 90 to 400 msec

22

All of the following are possible etiologies of anatomic mitral regurgitation EXCEPT:
A. Ruptured chordae tendineae
B. MAC
C. MVP
D. Dilated Cardiomyopathy

D. Dilated Cardiomyopathy

23

The most likely heart sound to be heard in patients with significant chronic pure mitral regurgitation is:
A. S3
B. Loud S1
C. Fixed split S2
D. Ejection Click

A. S3

24

Cardiac MRI provides all of the following information in the evaluation of mitral regurgitation EXCPET:
A. Detailed visualization of the mitral valve apparatus
B. Regurgitant Volume
C. LV mass
D. LV volumes

A. Detailed visualization of the mitral valve apparatus

25

Secondary echographic/Doppler findings in patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis include all of the following EXCEPT:
A. LV Dilation
B. Increased right heart dimensions
C. Abnormal interventricular septal wall motion
D. Increased tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity

A. LV Dilation

26

A Doppler MPG across a stenotic mitral valve of 22 mmHg is obtained. The Severity of the mitral stenosis is:
A. Mild
B. Severe
C. Moderately Severe
D. Moderate

B. Severe

27

The equation used in the cardiac catheterization laboratory to determine mitral valve area is the:
A. Bernoulli
B. Doppler
C. Continuity
D. Gorlin

D. Gorlin

28

A deceleration time of 800 msec was obtained by CW Doppler in a patient with rheumatic mitral valve stenosis. The PHT is:
A. 800 msec
B. 220 msec
C. 232 msec
D. 400 msec

C. 232 msec

29

Critical mitral valve stenosis is said to be present if the mitral valve area is reduced to:
A. 1 to 1.5 cm2
B. 1.5 tp 2.5 cm2
C. <1 cm2
D. 2.5 to 3.5 cm2

C. <1 cm2

30

In patients with severe acute mitral regurgitation, the CW Doppler peak velocity of the regurgitant jet is:
A. Dependent largely upon left ventricular global systolic function
B. Unaffected
C. Increased
D. Decreased

D. Decreased