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Cardiac Theory Echo 500 > Ventricular Function > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ventricular Function Deck (42)
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1

Hibernating myocardium is:
A. Myocardium that is hyperkinetic post myocardial-infarction
B. Reperfused viable myocardium that is nonfunctional because of chronic ischemia
C. Viable myocardium that is nonfunctional because of chronic ischemia
D. Viable myocardium at rest but not functional with exercise

C. Viable myocardium that is nonfunctional because of chronic ischemia

2

_____ is a direct measure of myocardial contractile function.
A. Strain
B. E-F Slope
C. Deceleration time
D. EPSS

A. Strain

3

The formula used to determine fractional shortening is:
A. EDV - ESV
B. (EDV - ESV) / EDV X 100
C. CSA X VTI
D. (EDD-ESD) / EDD X 100

D. (EDD-ESD) / EDD X 100

4

The echocardiographic appearance of necrotic myocardium secondary to myocardial infarction includes all of the following EXCEPT:
A. Echogenic wall segment
B. Akinetic wall segment
C. Wall motion score of 1
D. Thin ventricular wall

C. Wall motion score of 1

5

A systolic wall motion score of 3 is assigned to a certain segment of left ventricular muscle indicates:
A. Normal
B. Akinetic
C. Dyskinetic
D. Hypokinetic

B. Akinetic

6

Stress echocardiography methods that may be used to detect hibernating myocardium include:
A. Treadmill
B. Handgrip
C. Low-does dobutamine
D. Cold pressure

C. Low-does dobutamine

7

Patients with increased diastolic filling pressures post-exercise will demonstrate:
A. Increased mitral deceleration time
B. E/Eprime ratio > 10
C. Normal mitral E/A ratio
D. Normal tricuspid regurgitation peak velocity

B. E/Eprime ratio >10

8

The most specific echocardiographic finding for ischemic heart muscle is:
A. Alterations in systolic wall thickening
B. Abnormal diastolic wall motion at the ischemic segment
C. Normal diastolic wall motion
D. Normal systolic wall motion

A. Alterations in systolic wall thickening

9

An ejection fraction of 42% is determined with 2D echocardiography. This indicates ______ global left ventricular systolic function.
A. Mildly abnormal
B. Moderately abnormal
C. Severely abnormal
D. Normal

B. Moderately abnormal

10

A wall segment of the heart that is without systolic wall thickening is best described as:
A. Hypokinetic
B. Hyperkinetic
C. Dyskinetic
D. Akinetic

D. Akinetic

11

A thrombus shape that is associated with embolization is:
A. Spherical
B. Flat
C. Pedunculated
D. Eccentric

C. Pedunculated

12

Which of the following mitral valve flow patterns provides risk stratification post-myocardial infarction?
A. Restrictive (Grade III-IV)
B. Normal for age
C. Pseudonormal (grade II)
D. Impaired relaxation (grade I)

A. Restrictive (grade III-IV)

13

An increased mitral valve E point to septal-separation (EPSS) may indicate:
A. Reduced ejection fraction
B. Left atrial myxoma
C. Pulmonary hypertension
D. Increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure

A. Reduced ejection fraction

14

A pericardial effusion develops in a patient two weeks post-myocardial infraction. This suggests _____ syndrome.
A. Dressler's
B. Williams
C. Marfan
D. Down

A. Dressler's

15

A PW Doppler tracing of the MV inflow at the leaflet tips is obtained with the following information: E/A ratio is 0.7; deceleration time is 320 msec; a tissue doppler at the mitral annulus demonstrated an Eprime peak velocity of 6 cm/s and an E/Eprime ratio is 7. The diastolic grade is:
A. III or IV
B. II
C. I
D. Normal diastolic function

C. I

16

The rate at which the left ventricular pressure rises in ventricular systole is referred to as:
A. dP/dt
B. dv/dt
C. dt/dP
D. dd/tP

A. dP/dt

17

The formula used to determine ejection fraction is:
A. (EDV - ESV) / EDV X 100
B. CSA X VTI
C. EDV - ESV
D. (EDD -ESD) / EDD X 100

A. (EDV - ESV) / EDV X 100

18

Echocardiographic findings in the post-myocardial infraction patient include:
A. Mitral annular calcification
B. Mural thrombus
C. Valvular stenosis
D. Ventricular septal aneurysm

B. Mural thrombus

19

The infraction most commonly associated with left ventricular aneurysm is:
A. Anterior
B. Lateral
C. True posterior
D. Inferior

A. Anterior

20

The normal response of non-infracted myocardium in a patient with acute myocardial infarction is:
A. Dyskinesis
B. Hyperkinesis
C. Hypokinesis
D. Akinesis

B. Hyperkinesis

21

The four most common 2D views acquired during a stress echocardiogram are the PLAX, PSAV PAP, A4, and the:
A. Apical two-chamber
B. Apical long-axis
C. Subcostal short-axis at the cardiac base
D. Apical five-chamber

A. Apical two-chamber

22

For exercise echocardiography the images post-exercise need to be acquired within ____ from the time the patient exercise is completed.
A. 3 hours
B. 5 minutes
C. 60 seconds
D. 60 minutes

C. 60 seconds

23

Which of the following methods is recommended to determine left ventricular volumes?
A. Biplane Simpson's method of discs
B. Teichholtz
C. Cubed
D. Bipane area-length

A. Biplane Simpson's method of discs

24

Which of the following pharmacological agents increases contractility and increases heart rate?
A. Verapamil
B. Digitalis
C. Dobutamine
D. Propranolol

C. Dobutamine

25

The correct term for describing decreased ventricular systolic wall thickening is:
A. Dyskinetic
B. Hyperkinetic
C. Hypokinetic
D. Akinetic

C. Hypokinetic

26

The most common medication used in performing pharmacological stress echocardiography is:
A. Adenosine
B. Dipyridamole
C. Propranolol
D. Dobutamine

D. Dobutamine

27

A possible etiology for pericardial effusion is:
A. Pulmonary regurgitation
B. Mitral valve prolapse
C. Acute myocardial infarction
D. Mitral valve stenosis

C. Acute myocardial infarction

28

The most common etiology for ischemic heart disease is coronary artery:
A. Atherosclerosis
B. Spasm
C. Embolus
D. Aneurysm

A. Atherosclerosis

29

The type of myocardial infarction which most often involves the right ventricle is:
A. Anterolateral
B. Lateral
C. Anterior
D. Inferior

D. Inferior

30

Echocardiography differentiates a pseudoaneurysm from a true ventricular aneurysm by the:
A. Width of the neck of the aneurysm
B. Length of the aneurysm
C. Diastolic motion of the aneurysm
D. Width of the border of the aneurysm

A. Width of the neck of the aneurysm