Vasopressors Flashcards Preview

Anesthesiology > Vasopressors > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vasopressors Deck (55):
1

What are the general effects of alpha-1 adrenergic receptor agonists?

Sympathetic regulation (decreased insulin release, vasoconstriction, mild inotropy, negative chronotropy)

2

What receptors do epi and norepi target?

Epi: alpha 1, alpha 2, beta 1, and beta 2
Norepi: alpha 1, alpha 2, beta 1

3

How is the change in BP different when using norepi vs epi?

With epi, you have alpha-1 and beta-2 effects (constrict and dilates) so you have a more pronounced increase in SBP and minimal changes in DBP; Norepi increases both equally

4

How does norepi affect HR?

Increased SVR -> baroreceptor mediated bradycardia (countered by beta-1 chronotropic effect) = no real change in HR

5

What pressor is best for renal preservation with severe sepsis?

Norepi (raises BP and preserves CO)

6

What receptors does dobutamine target?

Beta-1 >>> beta-2, alpha-1

7

First line pressor for hypotension? If CO is still low? If that doesn't work? Still not working?

NE -> dobutamine -> vasopressin -> epi

8

What is the primary advantage of a NE gtt vs dopamine gtt?

Lower rate of arrhythmias (in particular tachyarrhythmias)

9

How are catecholamines metabolized in the liver vs. neurons? Final product of metabolism?

Liver: First by COMT, then MAO
Neurons: First by MAO, then COMT
Final product: Vanillymandelic acid (VMA)

10

What effects do you get of low-dose dopamine?

Significant DA1 agonist (renal artery vasodilation) and weak adrenergic receptor effects -> minimal increase in HR and contractility + diuresis

11

Are low-dose dopamine drips renal protective?

No, same number of kidneys fail with or without the drip

12

What effects do you get of medium-dose dopamine (5-10mcg/kg/min)? High dose (>10 mcg/kg/min)?

Medium: beta > alpha (vasodilation, increased HR, increased contractility)
High: alpha-1 + beta-1 and beta-2 (increased SVR)

13

What receptors do dopexamine target?

Beta-2 >>> Beta-1 and potent DA effects (opposite of dobutamine)

14

What receptors do isoproterenol target?

Beta 1 and beta 2 roughly equally

15

What is dromotropy?

The conduction speed of electrical impulses within the heart

16

What is lusitropy?

Ability of the heart to relax in diastole

17

Mechanism of action of ephedrine?

Increased post-synaptic NE release and/or decreased NE reuptake

18

What happens when you activate beta receptors?

G-protein couple receptors -> adenylate cyclase -> ATP to cAMP -> activates PKA (protein kinase A) -> increased intracellular Ca++ from sarcoplasmic reticulum

19

What is the mechanism of action of milrinone?

Phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor: decrease the degradation of cAMP which increases intracellular Ca++

20

What happens when you activate alpha receptors?

G-protein coupled receptor -> phospholipase C -> splits phosphatidyl inositol -> release of Ca++ from sarcoplasmic reticulum

21

What cardiac effects do you see with milrinone?

Increased intracellular cAMP -> increased contractility, increased HR, arterial and venous vasodilation

22

How does nitric oxide work?

Lowers PA pressures by being a direct vasodilator; stimulates guanylate cyclase -> increased cGMP -> relaxation of smooth muscles

23

What receptors does fenoldopam target?

Purely DA1 agonist (systemic vasodilation and increased renal blood flow)

24

How is sildenafil (Viagra) important in PA pressures?

Phosphodiesterase (PDA 5) inhibitor which is what breaks down cGMP (more cGMP -> more smooth muscle relaxation -> lower PA pressures)

25

What is a side effect of NO (nitric oxide)?

Methemoglobinemia

26

How does nesiritide work?

Recombinant BNP -> stimulates guanylate cyclase -> increases cGMP -> vasodilation (decreases afterload)

27

When would you use nesiritide?

Severe decompensated heart failure by decrease afterload and encouraging forward flow

28

During ACLS, what dose of vasopressin can be used instead of epi?

40 units

29

Forumula for SVR and PVR?

SVR: (MAP - CVP) / CO
PVR: (PAP - PWP) / CO
(both multiplied by 80)

30

Does vasopressin affect contractility?

No, only affects vascular tone

31

How does phentolamine work?

Alpha-1 and alpha-2 antagonist

32

How does prazosin work?

Alpha-1 antagonist

33

How does labetalol work?

Non-selective beta blocker with alpha-1 antagonism

34

Side effects of sodium nitroprusside?

Met-Hb and cyanide toxicity

35

What effects do you see from cyanide toxicity?

Uncoupling of the electron transport chain -> increased anaerobic metabolism -> lactic acidosis

36

Treatment for cyanide toxicity?

1. Sodium nitrite (increase met-Hgb) to pick up cyanide and become cyanmet-Hgb, followed by methylene blue
2. Sodium thiosulfate (binds cyanide producing thiocyanate)
3. Vitamin B12

37

Why would a patient with ARDS on sodium nitroprusside therapy have a sudden profound desaturation?

Sodium nitroprusside vasodilates pulmonary vasculature -> counteracts hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction -> increases blood flow to poorly oxygenated alveoli -> increased V/Q mismatch

38

What medication can redistribute coronary blood flow to the subendocardium during ischemia?

Nitroglycerin

39

Mechanism of action of nitroglycerin?

Decreases preload (venodilator) and wall tension, coronary artery vasodilator

40

What are the beta-1 actions in the heart?

Increase inotropy, chronotropy, and dromotropy

41

What are the primary effects of beta-2 action?

Systemic and pulmonary arteriolar vasodilation

42

How does levosimendan work?

Calcium sensitizer without increasing Ca++, inotrope

43

Common inotrope used following cardiac transplantation to maintain an elevated HR and CO?

Isoproterenol

44

Which inotrope improves diastolic relaxation?

Milrinone

45

Low dose epinephrine vs. higher doses?

Low-dose: beta-1 effect (alpha-1 offset by beta-2)
Higher-doses: alpha-1 effect predominates

46

How are the catecholamines synthesized (order of compounds)?

Tyrosine -> DOPA -> Dopamine -> NE -> Epi

47

Inotrope of choice in early cardiogenic shock with low BP and s/s of end-organ compromise?

Dopamine (alpha-1 effects will correct organ perfusion pressure) over dobutamine (beta-2 effect would worsen perfusion)

48

Type of shock with elevated CO? Increased delivery of O2? Increased CVP? Decreased SVR?

Elevated CO: Distributive
Increased DO2: Distributive
Increased CVP: Cardiogenic & obstructive
Decreased SVR: Distributive

49

What is another name for ADH?

Vasopressin

50

What vasopressor is preferred in patients with aortic stenosis or HOCM?

Phenylephrine (from the reflexive bradycardia)

51

How does sodium nitroprusside work?

SNP consists of 5 cyanide groups and a NO group: the NO diffuses out and stimulates guanylate cyclase -> increased cGMP -> smooth muscle relaxation

52

What cardiovascular effects do you see with sodium nitroprusside?

Decreased SVR (arterial vasodilator), reflexive tachycardia, increased contractility, decreased preload (venodilator)

53

What does sodium nitroprusside do to platelets?

Decreases the number and aggregation 1-6 hours after infusion; returns to normal 24 hours after infusion

54

Why can you use phenylephrine in a hypotensive patient after induction with propofol who has coronary artery disease?

Phenylephrine will increase SVR, improving coronary perfusion (aortic diastolic pressure - LVEDP), and decreases HR (increases time for filling)

55

What state of iron does methemoglobin have?

Ferric (3+)