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Flashcards in vegetables, salad & fruit Deck (23)
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1

classification of vegetables

root (carrot, parsnip, turnip, beetroot, potato, sweet potato, onions, garlic)
green (lettuce, cabbage, kale, spinach, cauliflower, broccoli, brussel sprouts, celery, asparagus, leek)
fruit (cucumber, pepper, tomato, aubergine, pumpkin)
pulse/legume (beans; green + runner + broad + french, peas, lentils)

2

vegetables: average composition of root

protein: 1%
fats: 0%
carbs: 5-10%
minerals: calcium, iron
vits: a, b group, c
water: 70-90%

3

vegetables: average composition of green

protein: 3%
fats: 0%
carbs: 2%
minerals: calcium, iron
vits: a, b group, c
water: 90-95%

4

vegetables: average composition of fruit

protein: 1%
fats: 0%
carbs: 2-5%
minerals: calcium, iron
vits: a, b group, c
water: 90-95%

5

vegetables: average composition of pulse

protein: 2-44%
fats: 0-8%
carbs: 3-60%
minerals: calcium, iron
vitamins: a, b group, c
water: 14-19%

6

nutritive value of vegetables, salad and fruit

most veg are not a good source of protein. pulse veg contain LBV protein
most veg are low in fat. soya beans are a good source of unsaturated fat
roots & pulses contain large amounts of starch. potatoes (especially new) & pulses are good sources of dietary fibre. some vegetables (eg carrots) contain small amounts of sugar
some vegetables contain small amounts of calcium. leafy greens & pulses contain iron
veg have carotene, folic acid, vitamin c
high water content

7

dietetic value of vegetables

pulse veg r useful in vegetarian diets
useful in low-calorie & low-cholesterol diets
useful in high-fibre diets
leafy greens useful in vegan diets (iron & calcium content)
add colour, flavour, texture
some veg (potatoes, carrots) r inexpensive

8

culinary use of vegetables

garnishes & decorations (tomato roses)
starters (caesar salad)
main courses (vegetable curry)
desserts (carrot cake)
snacks (crudités)
accompaniments (mixed vegetables)
soups & stocks (vegetable soup)
preserves (pickles)
juices & smoothies (carrot juice)

9

classification of fruits

berry (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, blackcurrant, blueberry, gooseberry)
citrus (orange, lemon, grapefruit, mandarin)
hard (apple, pear)
stone (avocado, apricot, cherry, peach, plum, olive)
dried (apricot, prune, dare, raisin, currant)
other (banana, pineapple, melon, rhubarb)

10

fruit: average composition of berries

protein: .5%
fats: 0%
carbs: 5-10%
minerals: calcium, iron
vitamins: a, b group, c
water: 90-95%

11

fruit: average nutritional composition of citruses

protein: 1%
fats: 0%
carbs: 1-9%
minerals: calcium, iron
vits: a, b group, c
water: 90-95%

12

fruit: average nutritional composition of hards

protein: .5%
fats: 0%
carbs: 10-12%
minerals: calcium, iron
vits: a, c
water: 88-90%

13

fruit: average nutritional composition of stones

protein: .3%
fats: .41g
carbs: 10.9%
minerals: calcium, iron, potassium
vits: carotene, b group, c
water: 85.2%

14

fruit: average nutritional composition of dried

protein: 2-4%
fats: 0%
carbs: 40-70%
minerals: calcium, iron
vits: a, b group
water: 15-20%

15

nutritive value of fruits

very little protein
no fat, w exception of avocados & olives (unsaturated fat)
starch in unripe fruit, changed to sugar when ripened. fibre in all fruits, especially when skins eaten (apples, pears)
highly coloured fruits (peaches) contain carotene. fruit contains vits b group & c. fruit contains small amounts of calcium & iron (dried contain more iron). bananas contain potassium
fresh fruit have high water content. dried fruits contain very little water

16

dietetic value of fruit

useful in vegetarian & vegan diets
useful in low-calorie & low-cholesterol diets
useful in high-fibre diets
bc of high sugar content (fructose) in some, may have 2 b limited by diabetics
bananas are useful during pregnancy 2 prevent water retention
add colour, flavour, texture

17

culinary uses of fruit

garnishes & deco (berries on cakes)
starters (melon balls)
main courses (pineapple in sweet & sour chicken)
desserts (apple crumble)
snacks (bananas)
sauces (orange sauce w duck)
cheeseboards (grapes)
preserves (raspberry jam)
juices & smoothies (eg strawberry smoothie)

18

safe and hygienic practices for buying vegetables and fruit

buy in-season, will b better quality, fresher, cheaper
buy in usable quantities, are perishable
buy loose - avoid those pré-packed in plastic, are bad 4 environment
examine 4 wilting, rotting, bruising, mold

19

safe and hygienic practices for storing vegetables and fruit

remove from plastic wrapping, this can cause fruit & veg 2 sweat & go off quicker
most fruit & veg should b stored in fruit & veg drawer of fridge
fresh peas, beans, lettuce should b stored in sealed container in fridge

20

safe and hygienic practices for preparing vegetables and fruit

wash well in cold water &remove and damag3d parts
only peel if necessary 2 avoid loss of nutrients (fibre) in skin
if peeling, peel thinly using veg peeler
don’t steep
cook straight away
use sharp knife

21

safe and hygienic practices for cooking vegetables and fruit

eat raw where possible
cook in as small amount of liquid as possible
steak or roast veg, rather than boil them
do not overcook. serve al dente
serve immediately

22

methods of cooking vegetables and fruit

boiling (boiled potatoes)
roasting (roast peppers)
steaming (steamed broccoli)
poaching (poached pears)
stir-frying (stir-fried bean sprouts)
grilling (grilled tomatoes)

23

effects of cooking on vegetables and fruits

starch grains swell, soften, absorb liquid, making them digestible
cellulose softens in texture
minerals dissolve into the cooking water
vitamin c is destroyed
colour, flavour, texture lose, especially if overcooked
microorganisms destroyed