meat, poultry, fish. eggs, beans & nuts Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in meat, poultry, fish. eggs, beans & nuts Deck (26)
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classification of meat (4)

carcass (red meat)
- cow (beef, veal)
- pig (pork, bacon, ham)
-sheep (lamb, mutton)

game (wild birds & animals)
- deer (venison)
- pheasant - rabbit

poultry (domesticated birds)
- chicken - duck
- turkey

offal (edible internal organs)
- liver - kidney


structure of meat (3)

meat fibres, connective tissue, fat


tenderizing red meat

breaks down long, thick fibres & connective tissue that holds them together. makes it more digestible


ways to tenderize meat (6)

chopping / mincing
beating with a meat hammer
slow, moist cooking methods (stewing)
using tenderizers (papain)


nutritive & dietetic value of meat (6)

source of hbv protein | useful in diets of children, teens, pregnant women
carcass meat - high in saturated fat | limited it low-cholesterol diets
lacks carbohydrates | should serve w carbohydrate-rich food (potatoes, pasta) for balanced meal
carcass, offal, game - good sources of iron | useful in diets of teen girls, pregnant women
good source of b group vitamins. offal - vitamins a, c, d, k
higher fat content = lower water content. much water lost cooking


safe & hygenic practices for buying meat (4)

buy with bord bia quality mark
check both sides of meat. ask butcher to cut off excess fat
fresh meat - dark red, plump, not dried out or discolored (chicken)
buy at end of shopping - can be frozen quicker


safe & hygienic practices for storing meat (4)

frozen solid
store at bottom - bacteria doesn’t multiply, liquid doesn’t drip
bought loose - use between 2-3 days. pre-packaged - use-by date
refrigerate leftovers when they are cool


safe & hygienic practices for preparing meat (3)

defrost by putting on plate at bottom of fridge
if cooking whole chicken, remove giblets (offal). cook stuffing separately
wash hands & equipment thoroughly after handling raw meat to avoid cross-contamination


safe & hygienic practices for cooking meat (2)

weigh meat, read packaging
choose cooking method suited to type & cut of meat


effects of cooking on meat (7)

bacteria destroyed: safer to eat
collagen changes to gelatine: more digestible
protein coagulates: meat skrinks
fat melts: flavor develops
changes from red to pink / brown to white
some b group vitamins are lost
if overcooked, becomes tough & dry


meat processing (2)

fresh meat: short shelf life. often processed to last longer


common methods of meat processing (6)

vacuum packing


classification of fish (3)

white fish (cod, plaice, sole, hake)
oily fish (mackerel, herring, tuna, salmon)
shellfish (prawn, crab, lobster, mussels, oysters)


classification of fish (nb)

white fish store fat in liver, removed during processing & used to make fish liver oils (cod liver oil)
these oils: excellent source of omega-3 (type of unsaturated fat important for brain development, helps lower blood cholesterol levels)
fat in oily fish & shellfish is distributed throughout flesh


nutritive & dietetic value of fish (6)(5)

excellent source of hbv protein | useful in diets of children, teens, pregnant women, invalids, convalescents
white fish: no fat; oily fish & shellfish: unsaturated fat; oily fish: excellent source of omega-3 | white fish: no fat = useful in low-calorie diets (cooking method important = coated in batter & fried: high in fat)
lack carbs (usually served with potatoes, bread)
small amounts of iodine; canned fish where bones are eaten: calcium
b group vitamins; oily fish & shellfish: vitamin a; oily fish: good source of vitamin d
water content: depends on fish type (oily fish = less water than white fish)

white & oily fish: low in cholesterol & high in omega-3 fatty acids | useful for low-cholesterol diets
low income (mackerel)


safe & hygenic practices for buying fish

must be absolutely fresh (bright pink/red gills, moist skin w unbroken scales, bulging eyes, fresh small)
shellfish shells: tightly closed

frozen solid & stored below load line


cooking fish (4)

often coated in
- flour
- batter
- egg & breadcrumbs
^protects flesh, allows fish to be cooked through without burning outside
coating helps seal in flavors
cooks quickly, careful not to overcook


effects of cooking on fish

bacteria destroyed
connective tissue softens, fibres become loose
protein coagulates
flesh changed from translucent -> opaque


types of eggs (4)

free-range (birds free to roam in barns & outdoors)
barn (birds free to roam in barns)
cage (birds kept in cages w slanted floors , eggs roll down into collection trap)
organic ( birds fed organic feed, not given growth hormone/antibiotics


structure of egg

air space


nutritive & dietetic value of eggs (6)(5)

excellent source of hbv protein | useful in diets of children, teens, pregnant women, vegetarians
yolks: saturated & unsaturated fat; whites: no fat | egg whites = useful in low-calorie diets. frying adds fat, so poach / boil
lack carbs | serve w food containing carbs & vit c (toast & oj)
vitamins a, b group, d, e, k; lack vitamins c
good source of calcium, iron, phosphorus
high water content (mostly in whites)

nutrient-dense, relatively few kilocalories = low-calorie diets
economical food, cook quick w little fuel = low income


culinary uses of eggs (7)

holding air when whisked (meringues)
on their own (boiled)
as main course (omelette)
binding to prevent food falling apart (burgers)
coating (w breadcrumbs on fish)
glazing (egg is brushed on scones to give gold colour when cooked)
thickening & setting mixtures (custard)


eggs: eu labeling regulations

all info to buy good quality must b on carton:
- name & address of packer / seller
- egg packaging centre code
- no. of eggs in pack
- class/quality of eggs
- country of origin
- expiry/best by date (usually 3 weeks from laying of eggs(
- size: xl, l, m, s. most recipes require l
- farming method
- storage instructions

bord bia quality assurance scheme requires each egg 2 b individually stamped w:
- farming method
- country of origin
- farm & county id
- best-before date


safe & hygienic practices for storing eggs

fridge: growth of bacteria will b slowed down, stay fresher longer
store away from strong-smelling foods (onions, garlic): shell is porous, will absorb smells
if yolks stored separately, place in bowl of water, cover bowl, place in fridge. if uncovered, yolks will dry out within day
whites: airtight container in fridge, so they won’t dry out
use in rotation b4 best-by date


safe & hygienic practices for cooking eggs

room temp b4 boiling or shell will crack in boiling water. if making meringues, egg white will whisk more easily if at room temp.
if combining egg + hot liquid (making egg custard) cool liquid slightly 1st & add slowly 2 prevent curdling
do not overcook, they will become dry & rubbery & difficult 2 digest


effects of cooking on eggs

protein coagulates
whites turn from translucent to opaque
bacteria killed
if overcooked, eggs become tough, rubbery, difficult 2 digest
if boiled 4 2 long, iron & sulfur will react, a green ring forming around yolk
boiling eggs: bring water 2 boil, turn down to gentle simmer; soft egg: simmer for 3 mins; harder egg: allow 5 mins