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Flashcards in milk, yoghurt & cheese Deck (34)
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1

milk (nb)

considered a complete food: easy 2 digest & contains all 5 nutrients + water

2

milk processing

reasons:
- makes safe 2 drink
- prolongs shelf life
- improves flavor

types:
pasteurisation, homogenisation

3

pasteurisation

milk heated to 72° for 25 seconds,
cooled quickly before packed into cartons or bottles.
kills pathogenic bacteria without changing the taste. destroys any vit c present.
pasteurised milk lasts 3-4 days in fridge

4

pathogenic

disease causing

5

homogenisation

distributes fat in milk; improves flavour
carried out after pasteurisation

6

types of milk

whole (3.6% fat)
low-fat (1% fat)
skimmed (.3% fat)
fortified
protein
lactose-free
long-free (VHT)
buttermilk
flavoured
dried
evaporated
condensed

7

whole (3.6% fat)

pasteurised and homogenised
suitable for young children

8

low-fat (1% fat)

much fat removed
suitable for adults on low-cholesterol and low-calorie diets

9

skimmed (.3% fat)

almost all fat removed
suitable for adults on low-cholesterol or low-calorie diets

10

fortified

fortified with calcium, b group vitamins (folic acid incl.), vit d + e
suitable for everyone

11

protein

much fat removed
xtra protein (100g p/litre)
popular w ppl following strength & conditioning programmes

12

lactose-free

lactose removed
useful for ppl w lactose intolerance

13

long-free (vht)

heated 2 high temps to kill all bacteria present
keeps for months if unopened
common in warm countries

14

buttermilk

acidic liquid left after butter made
used in baking (eg brown soda bread)

15

flavoured

flavourings added
can b high in sugar

16

dried

moisture removed
useful 4 camping & emergencies
keeps 4 long time in sealed tin
example: baby formula milk

17

evaporated

some water removed , milk sterelised, sealed in can
keeps 4 over yr
used in desserts, 2 enrich sauces, as coffee creamer

18

condensed

some water removed , sugar added, milk sterilised, sealed in can
keeps 4 over yr
used in desserts (eg caramel slices)

19

nutritive value of milk

hbv protein (repair + growth, heat + energy)
saturated fat (heat + energy, layer of fat around organs + body, vitamins a d e + k)
lactose
vit a, b group vits, vit d (a: eysight, linings of mouth nose + throat, growth, eyes skim + hair; b group: controls energy released from food, nervous system; d: works w calcium)
calcium (bones, teeth 4 young, g bone density 4 older), phosphorus, potasum
water (body tissues + fluids, transports nutrients + oxygen, removes waste, regulated body temp

20

dietetic value of milk

easily digested: preg women, older ppl, invalids, convalescents
fat removed (low-fat + skimmed): low-calorie + low-cholesterol diets. lack vits a + d: don’t serve 2 young children
high calcium content: children, teens, pregnant women
refreshers + hydrates
nutritious + inexpensive: low-income families

21

milk: complete food

lacks fibre, vit c & iron. should b combined w food high in these nutrients 2 create balanced meals
example: milk w wheetsbix, boiled egg, brown bread, glass of oj makes balanced breakfast

22

yogurt nutritional & dietetic value

similar to that of milk.
probiotic yoghurt has ‘healthy’ bacteria added to aid digestion & strengthen immune system

23

cheese enzyme

rennet
found in stomachs of grass-eating animals.
there is also a vegetarian rennet

24

production of cheese

1. pasteurisation (raw milk pasteurised; 72° for 25 secs)
2. starter culture added ( lactic acidosis bacteria added; changes lactose in milk to lactic acid. adds flavour & preserves cheese)
3. rennet added (milk heated 2 30° & enzyme rennet added. milk then separates into curds & whey - process that takes 40 mins)
4. cut & drained (salt added & curds are cut up + drained 2 allow more whey 2 drain off. if process stops here, cottage cheese is produced)
5. moulded (curds pressed into large moulds. more whey drained off. cheeses
taken out of mould containers & left to mature so that flavours can develop. some cheeses mature 4 a year+)
6. packaged (cheese cut up into sizes suitable 4 sale & packaged)

25

classification of cheese

hard (cheddar, parmesan)
semi-hard (edam, feta)
soft (cottage, brie)
blue-veined (stilton, danish blue)
processed (cheese strings, cheese triangles)

26

average composition of hard cheese

protein: 25.4%
fats: 34.9%
carbs: 0%
minerals: calcium
vitamins: a, b group, d
water: 36.6%

27

nutritive value of cheese

excellent source of hbv protein
high in saturated fat (esp hard cheese)
most cheese contains no carbs
excellent source of calcium
vits a, b group, d
water content depends on how hard/soft cheese is - the higher the water content the lower the fat content

28

dietetic value of cheese

high hbv protein content - vegetarian diets
relatively cheap protein food - low income
limit full-fat cheese - low-calorie & low-cholesterol diets. useful: cheese made from low-fat milk (eg cottage cheese)
high calcium content - diets of children, teens, pregnant women. low fat varieties - old people (maintains g bone density)

29

culinary uses of cheese

snacks (on crackers)
savoury dishes (pizza)
salads (greek salad)
sandwiches (croque madame)
sauces (carbonara)
dips & fondues (blue cheese dip)
baking (çheese scones)
desserts (cheesecakes)

30

safe & hygienic practices 4 buying milk yoghurt & cheese

buy from hygienic shop
check use-by date - often freshest products are shelved behind less fresh products
buy in usable amounts to avoid waste
ensure cartons/packs r properly sealed
buy towards end of shopping trip

31

safe & hygienic practices for storing milk, yoghurt

store upright in door of fridge to avoid spillages
store at 4° to prevent it going off quickly
use in rotation - check use-by dates & use oldest first
avoid mixing milks w diff best-befor dates as all milk will go off at same time, ie earliest use- by date
keep covered & away from strong-smelling foods (eg onions) as taste can b affected

32

safe & hygienic practices for storing cheese

store at 4° to prevent going off quickly
store in original packaging. of opened, wrap in wax paper or place on sealed container. if exposed to air, it dries out & become hard + inedible
use before use-by dates 2 avoid waste

33

effects of cooking on milk

protein coagulates (sets), forming a skin on milk
steam builds up under skin, causing milk 2 boil over
bacteria are destroyed
b group vits destroyed
flavour becomes sweeter

34

effects of cooking on cheese

protein coagulates, causing cheese to shrink
fat melts - overcooked cheese becomes greasy
color changes as cheese browns
if overcooked, cheese becomes rubbery & indigestible, so add it at end of cooking