What are the different categories for the Perfect verb in Arnold and Choi (3.2.1.)?
- Rhetorical Future
What is the Complete category of the Perfect?
"action or state is viewed as a complete whole, with the beginning and end in view... simple past, present perfect, or pluperfect in translation."
What is the Stative category of the Perfect?
"state of affairs or a condition... Since a stative verb does not denote a 'once-and-for-all' completed action, it regularly requires duration, usually present tense in translation."
What is the Experience category of the Perfect?
"with a fientive verb denoting a state of mind, usually requiring the present in translation."
What is the Rhetorical Future category of the perfect?
"not yet a reality but considered a certainty from the speaker's rhetorical point of view."
What is the Proverbial category of the Perfect?
"denoting actions, events, or facts that are not time conditioned, and considered to be general truths...usually requires the present tense."
What is the Performative category of the Perfect?
"action that occurs by means of speaking, usually requiring the present."
What are the different categories for the Imperfect verb in Arnold and Choi (3.2.2)?
What is the Future category of the Imperfect?
"action anticipated or announced."
What is the Customary category of the Imperfect?
"action occurring regularly or customarily." Could be past/iterative; could also be present, in which case it frequently takes on a proverbial connotation.
What is the Progressive category of the Imperfect?
"action that is underway or continuing as the writer or speaker describes it... usually expressed with participles."
What is the Contingent category of the Imperfect?
"action that is dependent on other factors in the context... often requiring the use of modal helping verbs: may, can, shall, might, could, should, and so on."
What are the four subcategories of the Contingent category of the imperfect?
- Conditional (If...)
- Permission (May...)
- Obligation (Ought/Should...)
- Command (Shall...)
What is the Preterite category of the Imperfect?
"specifically past time situations when occurring after אָז(“at that time”), טֶרֶם(“before”),and בְּטֶרֶם(“before”)."
What are the different categories for the Participles in Arnold and Choi (3.4.3)?
What is the Attributive category of the Participles?
"ascribes a quality to a noun... forms a phrase with the noun it modifies...marks neither time nor aspect, both of which must be determined from the context."
What is the Predicate category of the Participles?
"expresses an assertion about a noun or pronounin a nominal clause...durative or progressive action or condition that may occur in past, present, or future time, depending on context."
What is the Substantive category of the Participles?
"functions as a noun, most often occurring with the definite article...Certain verbal roots were used so widely as substantive participles that they in essence became nouns, most denoting vocations or other identifying roles."