Verbal System: Modals, Infinitive Constructs, and Infinitive Absolutes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Verbal System: Modals, Infinitive Constructs, and Infinitive Absolutes Deck (27)
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1

What are Modals?

Another name for the Volitives:

  • Jussives
  • Imperatives
  • Cohortatives

2

What are the different categories of the Jussive (3.3.1)?

  1. Command –(Superior →Inferior [subject])
  2. Wish –(Inferior →Superior [subject])
  3. Benediction –(Superior →[God] →Third Party)
  4. Prohibition

3

What is the Command category of the Jussive?

sometimes a simple command is intended."At times, this connotes permission... at other times, the concept of invitation is more appropriate."

4

What is the Wish category of the Jussive?

sometimes a simple wish is intended. "The speaker may use a jussive of request by referring to himself or herself indirectly... At times, this connotes advice...Where the jussive expresses a wish for God to take action, the jussive denotes prayer."

5

What is the Benediction category of the Jussive?

"A superior speaks of God as the subject of the jussive in order to pronounce a blessing for a third party."

6

What is the Prohibition category of the Jussive?

"with אַל, the command and wish nuances are expressed negatively."

7

What are the different categories of the Imperatives?

  1. Command
  2. Permission
  3. Promise

8

What is the Command category of the Imperative?

action (often immediate) is urged; connotations of requestor wish could also be implied here.

9

What is the Permission category of the Imperative?

"speaker grants permission for the action, which the recipient of the imperative desires to take. This use of the imperative is frequently preceded in the context by an actual request."

10

What is the Promise category of the Imperative?

speaker assures that the recipient of the imperative will take the action in the future, although the action itself is normally outside the power of the person receiving the order.

11

What are the different categories for the Cohortative?

  1. Resolve
  2. Wish
  3. Exhortation

12

What is the Resolve category of the Cohortative?

"speaker expresses self-determination to take an action that is within the speaker's ability."

13

What is the Wish category of the Cohortative?

"speaker expresses the desire to take an action that requires the consent of another."

14

What is the Exhortation category of the Cohortative?

"plural speakers encourage one another to take action, or to help in the action."

15

What are the different categories for Infinitives Constructs?

  1. Nominal
  2. Temporal
  3. Purpose
  4. Result
  5. Obligation
  6. Imminence
  7. Specification

16

What is the Nominal category of the Infinitive Construct?

"used as a noun or in place of a noun... may function in nominative, genitive, or accusative functions... the infinitive construct [as accusatives] may serve as a verbal complement."

17

What is the Temporal category of the Infinitive Construct?

"locates the action of the finite verb by relating it to the action of the infinitive construct."

18

What is the Purpose category of the Infinitive Construct?

"expresses the reason the action of the finite verb took place... most commonly used withל ְ... also used withל מַ עַ ןandבַ עֲ בוּר."

19

What is the Result category of the Infinitive Construct?

"expresses the outcome or consequence of the action of the finite verb... normally occurs with ל ְ, and may be translated "and so," "so as," or "so that"... also occurs with למַעַן."

20

What is the Obligation category of the Infinitive Construct?

"expresses the burden of responsibility or necessitywhen used in verbless clauses."

21

What is the Imminence category of the Infinitive Construct?

"expresses action expected soon or about to take place in constructions with ל ְplus infinitive construct in verbless clauses."

22

What is the Specification category of the Infinitive Construct?

"used with ל ְafter a verb to clarify or explain further the preceding verbal action, which would otherwise be generally or ambiguously stated."

23

What are the different categories for the Infinitive Absolutes?

  1. Nominal
  2. Emphatic
  3. Manner
  4. Verbal Substitute

24

What is the Nominal category of the Infinitive Absolute?

"used as a noun or in place of a noun... may function in nominative, genitive, or accusative functions."

25

What is the Emphatic category of the Infinitive Absolute?

"affirms and intensifies the authenticity or conviction of the verbal action when used with a finite verb of the same verbal root... normally precedes a finite verb of the same root, and is best translated by adverbs such as 'certainly,' 'surely,' 'indeed,' 'definitely,' and so on.”

26

What is the Manner category of the Infinitive Absolute?

"describes the way in which an action or situation is performed or the attendant circumstances of the action... typically follows the finite verb and modifies it adverbially."

27

What is the Verbal Substitute category of the Infinitive Absolute?

"serves the function of a main verb, whether finite verb, modal, or even an infinitive construct."