VII - Topnotch Pharma Flash Cards - Chemotherapeutic Drugs Preview

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Flashcards in VII - Topnotch Pharma Flash Cards - Chemotherapeutic Drugs Deck (225)
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91

CYP450 inducer: Rifampicin or INH

Rifampicin (TOPNOTCH)

92

Inhibits arabinosyl transferases involved in the synthesis of arabinogalactan in mycobacterial cell wall, bacteriostatic

Ethambutol (TOPNOTCH)

93

SE: dose-dependent visual disturbances (decreased visual acuity, red green color blindness, retrobulbar neuritis, retinal damage, optic neuritis), headache, confusion, hyperuricemia, peripheral neuritis

Ethambutol (TOPNOTCH)

94

Unknow MOA, bacteriostatic but can be bactericidal on actively dividing mycobacteria, is metabolized to pyrazinoic acid, t 1/2 is increased in liver and kidney disease

Pyrazinamide (TOPNOTCH)

95

SE: hepatotoxicity, nongouty polyarhtralgia, asymptomatic hyperuricemia, myalgia, GIT irritation, maculopapular rash, porphyria, photosensitivity ; CI in pregnancy

Pyrazinamide (TOPNOTCH)

96

Most hepatotoxic anti-TB drug

Pyrazinamide (TOPNOTCH)

97

Most active drug against M. leprae

Dapsone (TOPNOTCH)

98

_______ is a repository form of dapsone which has drug action that can last for several months

Acedapsone (TOPNOTCH)

99

Binds to guanine bases in bacterial DNA, bactericidal ; For leprosy

Clofazimine (TOPNOTCH)

100

Binds to ergosterol in fungal cell membranes, forming artificial pores, fungicidal

Amphotericin B (TOPNOTCH)

101

WIDEST antifungal spectrum

Amphotericin B (TOPNOTCH)

102

For systemic fungal infections (aspergillus, blastomyces, candida, Cryptococcus, histoplasma, mucor), for initial induction before followup treatment with azoles, can be used topically in mycotic corneal ulcers and keratitis

Amphotericin B (TOPNOTCH)

103

Accumulated in fungal cells by the action of permease and converted by cytosine deaminase to 5-FU, which inhibits thimidylate synthase, pyrimidine antimetabolite, fungistatic

Flucytosine (TOPNOTCH)

104

SE: infusion reactions (chills, fever, muscle spasms, vomiting, hypotension), dose limiting nephrotoxicity (decreased GFR, ATN with magnesium and potassium wasting, decreased erythropoietin), neurotoxicity (seizure, neuronal damage)

Amphotericin B (TOPNOTCH)

105

Inhibit 14-demethylase --> decreased ergosterol production --> increased permeability of cell membrane, Inhibits fungal P450-dependent enzymes blocking ergosterol synthesis, fungistatic

Ketoconazole (TOPNOTCH)

106

SE: GI disturbances (vomiting, diarrhea), rash, hepatotoxicity, drug interaction, gynecomastia, menstrual irregularities and infertility

Ketoconazole (TOPNOTCH)

107

DOC for candidiasis (esophageal, oropharyngeal, vulvovaginitis), coccidioidomycosis, cryptococcal meningitis (treatment and prophylaxis)

Fluconazole (TOPNOTCH)

108

alternative to Ampho B in the treatment of C. neoformans, as effective as Ampho B in candidemia

Fluconazole (TOPNOTCH)

109

DOC for blastomycosis, sporotrichosis, dermatophytosis esp onchomycosis, chromoblastomycosis ; alternative for infections due to Aspergillus, Coccidioides, Cryptococcus and Histoplasma , for esophageal candidiasis resistant to fluconazole

Itraconazole (TOPNOTCH)

110

co-DOC for invasive aspergillosis, alternative in candidemia, for fluconazole-resistant organisms, for candidal esophagitis and stomatitis in AIDS patients

Voriconazole (TOPNOTCH)

111

SE: GI disturbances (vomiting, diarrhea), rash, hepatotoxicity, blurring of vision in 30% of patients, CI in pregnancy

Voriconazole (TOPNOTCH)

112

as salvage therapy in invasive aspergillosis

Posaconazole (TOPNOTCH)

113

BROADEST spectrum triazole ; the only azole with activity against Rhizopus sp. (mucormycosis

Posaconazole (TOPNOTCH)

114

azoles that are limited to topical use because of systemic toxicity

Clotrimazole, miconazole, ketoconazole (TOPNOTCH)

115

Inhibit beta-glucan synthase which produces (1-->2) glycan which is a cell wall component, thus decreasing fungal cell wall synthesis, fungostatic

Echinocandins: Caspofungin, anidulafungin, micafungin (TOPNOTCH)

116

Interferes with microtubule function in dermatophytes, inhibits synthesis and polymerization of nucleic acids, fungistatic

Griseofulvin (TOPNOTCH)

117

Inhibits with ergosterol synthesis by inhibiting fungal squalene oxidase leading to increased squalene which interferes with ergosterol synthesis, fungicidal

Terbinafine (TOPNOTCH)

118

absorption is increased by intake of fatty meal

Griseofulvin (TOPNOTCH)

119

Binds to ergosterol in fungal cell membranes, forming artificial pores, fungicidal

Nystatin (TOPNOTCH)

120

For candidiasis ((oropharyngeal, esophageal and vaginal), for GI fungal infections in patients with impaired defense mechanisms

Nystatin (TOPNOTCH)