VIII - Environmental and Nutritional Diseases Flashcards Preview

Topnotch Pathology Flashcards > VIII - Environmental and Nutritional Diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in VIII - Environmental and Nutritional Diseases Deck (63)
Loading flashcards...
2

A gas formed by sunlight-driven reactions involving nitrogen oxides. Together with oxides and fine particulate matter, it forms "smog".

Ozone(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 282

3

A nonirritating , colorless, tasteless, odorless gas produced bu the imperfect oxidation of carbonaceous materials. Binds to hemoglobin with high affinity causing systemic asphyxiation and CNS depression.

Carbon monoxide(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 282

4

Carbon monoxide in the blood is called _______.

Carboxyhemoglobin(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 282

5

Acute poisoning of carbon monoxide produces this characteristic color of the skin and mucous membranes.

Cherry red color(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 283

6

Microcytic, hypochromic anemia, with basophilic stippling of erythrocytes, peripheral demyelinating neuropathy which manifests as footdrop and wristdrop, colic characterized by extremely severe, poorly localized abdominal pain, and chronic renal damage are the features of poisoning with this heavy metal.

Lead(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 283

7

Main source of exposure to this heavy metal are contamintaed fish and dental amalgams, causing tremor, gingivitis and bizarre behavior.

Mercury(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 285

8

Consumption of fish contaminated with methyl mercury causing cerebral palsy, deafness, blindness, and major CNS defects in children exposed in utero.

Minamata disease(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 285

9

Antidote for mercury poisoning.

Thimerosal(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 285

10

Chronic exposure with this heavy metal results in hyperpigmentation and hyperkeratosis which may develop into basal or squamous cell carcinomas.

Arsenic(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 285

11

This heavy metal is used mainly in batteries and fertilizers, which can contaminate soil. Can cause obstructive lung disease and kidney damage.

Cadmium(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 285

12

Disease caused by cadmium in Japan, presenting as a combination of osteoporosis and osteomalacia, associated with renal disease.

Itai-itai disease(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 285

13

May be released from combustion of fossil fuels, burning of coal and gas, and also present in tar and soot. Among the most potent carcinogens, implicated in lung and bladder cancer.

Polycyclic hydrocarbons(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 287

14

Synthetic products that resist degradation and are lipophilic, typically used as pesticides, with anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity, and causes neurologic toxicity.

Organochlorines (e.g. DDT)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 287

15

These can cause skin disorders such as folliculitis and chloracne, consisting of acne, cyst formation, hyperpigmentation, and hyperkeratosis, around the face and behind the ears.

Dioxins and Polychlorinatedbiphenyls (PCB)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 287

16

It is the most preventable cause of human death.

Smoking(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 287

17

Components of cigarette smoke that are potent carcinogens in animals and are most likely involved in the causation of lung carcinomas in humans.

Polycyclic hydrocarbons and nitrosamines(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 288

18

A long acting tetracycline which can cause a diffuse blue-gray pigmentation of the skin.

Minocycline(TOPNOTCH)

19

Chronic alcoholics are at an increased risk of developing this type of cancer as a result of liver injury.

Hepatocellular carcinoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 290

20

These refer to untoward effects of drugs that are given in conventional therapeutic settings.

Adverse drug reactions(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 291

21

A long acting tetracycline which can cause a diffuse blue-gray pigmentation of the skin.

Minocycline(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 293

22

Oral contraceptives have a protective effect against these cancers.

Endometrial and ovarian CA(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 294

23

Oral contraceptives may increase the risk of developing this type of cancer in women.

Cervical CA(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 294

24

Prolonged use of oral contraceptives is associated with the development of this rare benign tumor especially in older women.

Hepatic adenoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 294

25

Toxic metabolite of paracetamol or acetaminophen.

NAPQI (N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 294

26

Toxic dose for acetaminophen.

15-25 grams/day(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 294

27

Antidote for acetaminophen poisoning.

N-acetylcysteine(TOPNOTCHRobbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 294

28

Manifested by headache, dizziness, tinnitus, difficulty of hearing, mental confusion, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, with CNS changes that can progress to convulsions and coma.

Salicylism(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 294

29

Adult toxic dose of aspirin.

10-30 grams(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 294

30

Mixtures of aspirin and phenacetin, or its active metabolite acetaminophen, when taken over several years can cause tubulointerstitial nephritis and renal papillary necrosis called _______.

Analgesic nephropathy(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 294

31

This drug of abuse can precipitate lethal arrythmias, hyperpyrexia, seizures, amd respiratory arrest during acute overdose. Causes nasal septal perforation, decrease in lung diffusing capacity in those who inhale smoke and dilated cardiomyopathy during chronic use.

Cocaine or "crack" (cocaine derivative)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 295