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Flashcards in XX - The Endocrine System Deck (105)
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2

A benign, well-circumscribed, soft lesion of the pituitary gland that may compress the optic chiasm and adjacent structures. Composed of relatively uniform, polygonal cells arrayed in sheets, cords, or papillae. Most common cause of hyperpituitarism.

Pituitary adenoma (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p. 754

3

Most common type of hyperfunctioning pituitary adenoma.

Prolactinomas (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p. 754

4

Microscopically, these are composed of densely or sparsely granulated cells, and immunohistochemical stains demonstrate growth hormone within the cytoplasm of the neoplastic cells.

Growth Hormone-Producing Adenomas (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p. 754

5

A condition characterized by excessive urination (polyuria) caused by an inability of the kidney to properly resorb water from the urine.

Diabetes insipidus(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p. 757

6

Enzyme deficient in central Diabetes insipidus.

Anti-diuretic hormone(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p. 757

7

Disease caused by excessive levels of ADH, leading to resorption of excess water, with resultant hyponatremia.

syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p. 757

8

The most common cause of hypothyroidism in areas of the world where iodine levels are sufficient. Presents as painless enlargement of the gland, associated with hypothyroidism.

Hashimoto thyroiditis (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p. 757

9

The thyroid is diffusely and symmetrically enlarged, with intact capsule. Microscopically, reveals a mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate and the presence of Hürthle or oxyphil cells, which are cells with eosinophilic, granular cytoplasm.

Chronic Lymphocytic (Hashimoto) Thyroiditis (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p. 761

10

A rare disorder characterized by extensive fibrosis involving the thyroid and contiguous neck structures. Idiopathic in nature.

Riedel thyroiditis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p. 762

11

Believed to be caused by a viral infection or a postviral inflammatory process, this lesion of the thyroid gland is characterized by unilateral or bilateral enlargement of the thyroid, with disruption of thyroid follicles. Extravasation of colloid leads to a granulomatous reaction. Healing occurs by resolution of inflammation and fibrosis.

Subacute Granulomatous (de Quervain) Thyroiditis (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p. 762

12

Also known as "silent" or "painless" thyroiditis n a subset of patients the onset of disease follows pregnancy. Unlike Hashimoto thyroiditis, follicular atrophy or Hürthle cell metaplasia are not commonly seen.

Postpartum thyroiditis/ Subacute Lymphocytic Thyroiditis (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p. 762

13

Thyroid gland is diffusely enlarged due to hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the thyroid follicular cells. The follicular epithelial cells are tall, columnar, and more crowded than usual. These cells actively resorb the colloid in the centers of the follicles, resulting in the "scalloped" appearance of the edges of the colloid.

Graves Disease(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p. 764

14

Goiter which occurs in areas where the soil, water and food supply contain little iodine.

Endemic goiter(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p. 765

15

Diffuse, symmetric enlargement of the gland due to TSH-induced hypertrophy and hyperplasia of thyroid follicular cells.

Diffuse goiter(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p. 765

16

Goiter characterized by enlarged, colloid-rich gland. On cut surface, the thyroid is usually brown, glassy and translucent.

Colloid goiter(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p. 765

17

Irregular enlargement of the thyroid as a result of recurrent episodes of hyperplasia and involution.

Multinodular goiter(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p. 765

18

Probability of being benign or malignant.A solitary nodule seen in a 20-yr old male.

Malignant(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p. 766

19

Probability of being benign or malignant.Multiple, hot nodules.

Benign(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p. 766

20

Probability of being benign or malignant.A solitary, cold nodule.

Malignant(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p. 766

21

A solitary, spherical lesion that compresses the adjacent non-neoplastic thyroid. Neoplastic cells are demarcated from the adjacent parenchyma by a well-defined, intact capsule, which is a hallmark of this tumor.

Thyroid adenoma (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p. 766

22

Most common carcinoma of the thyroid.

Papillary carcinoma (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p. 767

23

Thyroid carcinoma which may occur at any age and is associated with previous exposure to ionizing radiation. The nuclei of cells contain very finely dispersed chromatin, which imparts an optically clear appearance, giving rise to the designation "ground-glass" or "Orphan Annie eye" nuclei.

Papillary carcinoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p. 767

24

The second most common form of thyroid cancer. Usually present at an older age a peak incidence in the middle adult years. Microscopically, these are composed of fairly uniform cells forming small follicles, reminiscent of normal thyroid.

Follicular Carcinoma (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p. 769

25

Neuroendocrine neoplasms derived from the parafollicular cells, or C cells, of the thyroid, which secrete calcitonin. Associated with MEN 2A and 2B. May be solitary or multicentric, composed of polygonal to spindle-shaped cells, which may form nests, trabeculae, and follicles, contains amyloid.

Medullary carcinoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p. 770

26

Carcinoma of the thyroid usually seen in the elderly. Associated with high mortality rate. These present as bulky masses that typically grow rapidly beyond the thyroid capsule into adjacent neck structures.

Anaplastic carcinoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p. 771

27

A solitary lesion of the parathyroid gland which are composed predominantly of chief cells almost invariably confined to a single gland. A rim of compressed, non-neoplastic parathyroid tissue, generally separated by a fibrous capsule, is often visible at the edge of the adenoma.

Parathyroid adenoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p. 773

28

These tumors of the parathyroid glands are usually firm or hard tumors, adhering to the surrounding tissue as a result of fibrosis or infiltrative growth. May weigh >5 grams. The cytologic features and mitotic activity are variable.

Parathyroid carcinomas (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p. 773

29

Inadvertent removal of parathyroids during thyroidectomy.

Surgical ablation(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p. 775

30

An autoimmune disease characterized by progressive destruction of islet β cells, leading to absolute insulin deficiency.

Type 1 diabetes mellitus(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p. 781

31

Caused by a combination of peripheral resistance to insulin action and an inadequate compensatory response of insulin secretion by the pancreatic β cells.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p. 781