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Flashcards in Viro Exam 2 Deck (116)
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1

How does PCR work?

Denaturation -> annealing -> extension/elongation

2

What is real-time polymerase chain rxn?

Real-time PCR or quantitative PCR is an advanced form of PCR that allows monitoring and quantification of increasing accumulation of PCR products/nucleic acid load as the reaction progress . Useful to study virus load in patient

3

T/F Genome sequencing is DNA sequencing that refers to the process by which the sequence of bases in a DNA molecule is elucidated/can be obtained and read.

True

4

T/F next generation sequencing is much more expensive, quicker, needs significantly less DNA, has high throughput, and is more accurate and reliable than Sanger sequencing?

False- why?
next generation sequencing is much more cheaper, quicker, needs significantly less DNA, has high throughput, and is more accurate and reliable than Sanger sequencing?

5

Define Metagenomics

Metagenomics is the study of the collective set of microbial populations in a sample by analyzing the sample's entire nucleotide sequence content, and is a powerful method for random detection of existing and new pathogens.

6

What is phylogenetic analysis

The use of virus genome sequence data to study evolution of viruses and genetic relationships among viruses

7

Acyclovir is used to treat what virus

Herpes

8

Acyclovir is a synthetic what?

Nucleoside analog of deoxyguanosine

9

T/F Acyclovir is toxic to the uninfected host cell?

False- is non-toxic to the uninfected host cell

10

Amantadine inhibits what

inhibits replication of most strains of influenza A viruses by blocking uncoating of the virus.

11

M2 ion channel is the target of what antiviral drug

Amantadine

12

What happens in the presence of Amantadine

Viral RNA's remain bound to M1 and cannot enter the nucleus. Virus replication is inhibited.

13

What drug is a a neuraminidase inhibitor

Oseltamivir (tamiflu)

14

What is a neuraminidase inhibitor

Inhibitors of neuraminidase [NA] enzymes synthesized by influenza A and B viruses

15

Which drugs are nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)

AZT (Azidothymidine) + ZDV (Zidovudine)

16

Which drug has been shown to reduce clinical sign s in FIV positive cats when admin at dose of 10mg/kg 2x daily- SQ for a period of 3 weeks.

AZT (azidothymidine)

17

What is required to cleave the HIV polyproteins into functional proteins

Proteases

18

Which vaccination has subunit 'marker vaccines'

DIVE (differentiating infected from vax animals)

19

When do you isolate an animal/person

when they are known to be clinically ill with a contagious disease

20

When do you quarantine a animal?

when they have been exposed to a contagious disease .

21

Define decontamination

used to describe a process of treatment that renders a medical device, instrument or environmental surface to handle.

22

Define Sterilization

a process that destroys or eliminates all forms of microbial life/pathogens, including highly resistant pathogens such as bacteria with spores

23

Define disinfection

a process that eliminates many or all pathogenic microorganisms, except bacterial spores on inanimate objects

24

T/F Disinfection is less effective than sterilization

True

25

T/F Moist heat is used via autoclave

True

26

T/F non-ionizing (UV radiation) and Gamma rays, x-rays (ionizing) are forms of Radiation

True

27

Where does replications of poxviruses occur?

The Cytoplasm

28

T/F poxviruses can survive many years in dried scabs and other virus laden material

True

29

Genus Orthopoxvirus is also called what?

Cowpox

30

Genus Parapoxvirus is also called what?

Pseudocowpox (cattle, humans)