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Flashcards in Virology (RNA viruses) Deck (31):
1

Coltivirus- colorado tick fever

Rotavrius- #1 cause of fatal diarrhea in children

  • viral family?
  • enveloped?
  • RNA structure?
  • Capside symmetry?

  • Reoviruses
  • No
  • DS lineasr 10-12 segments
  • Icosahedral (double)

2

Poliovirus (Salk/sabin cacinnes IPV/OPV)

Echovirus- aseptic meningitis

Rhinovirus- common cold

Coxsackievirus: aspectic meningitis, herpangina (mouth blister fever), hand foot mouth disease, myocarditis, pericarditis.

HAV-acute viral hepatitis

 

  • viral family?
  • enveloped?
  • RNA structure?
  • Capside symmetry?

  • picornavirus
  • no
  • ss + linear 
  • Isocohedral

3

HEV

  • viral family?
  • enveloped?
  • RNA structure?
  • Capside symmetry?

  • Hepevirus
  • No
  • SS + Linear
  • Icosahedral

4

Norovirus-viral gastroenteritis (adults)

  • viral family?
  • enveloped?
  • RNA structure?
  • Capside symmetry?

  • Calicivirus
  • No
  • SS + Linear
  • Icosahedral

5

HCV, Yellow fever, Dengue, St. Louis encephalitis, West Nile virus

  • viral family?
  • enveloped?
  • RNA structure?
  • Capside symmetry?

  • Flaviviruses
  • Yes
  • SS + linear
  • Icosahedral

6

Rubella, Eastern equine encephalitis, Western equine encephalitis

  • viral family?
  • enveloped?
  • RNA structure?
  • Capside symmetry?

  • Togavirus
  • Yes
  • SS + Linear
  • Icosahedral

7

Have reverse transcriptase, HTLV-Tcell leukemia HIV -AIDS

  • viral family?
  • enveloped?
  • RNA structure?
  • Capside symmetry?

  • Retrovirus
  • Yes
  • SS + Linear
  • Icosahedral (HTLV), complex and conical (HIV)

8

Coronavirus 'common cold' and SARS

  • viral family?
  • enveloped?
  • RNA structure?
  • Capside symmetry?

  • Coronavirus
  • Yes
  • SS + linear
  • Helical

9

Influenza virus

  • viral family?
  • enveloped?
  • RNA structure?
  • Capside symmetry?

  • Orthomyxoviruses
  • Yes
  • SS - linear 8 segments
  • Helical 

10

PaRaMyxovirus:

Parainfluneza (croup), RSV (bronchiolitis in babies' Rx: what is treatment?), Measles and Mumps

  • viral family?
  • enveloped?
  • RNA structure?
  • Capside symmetry?

  • Ribavirin
  • Paramyxovirus
  • Yes
  • SS - linear nonsegmented
  • helical

11

Rabies

  • viral family?
  • enveloped?
  • RNA structure?
  • Capside symmetry?

  • Rhabdoviruses
  • Yes 
  • SS - Linear
  • Helical

12

Ebola/Marburh hemorrhagic fever (often fatal)

  • viral family?
  • enveloped?
  • RNA structure?
  • Capside symmetry?

  • Filovirus
  • Yes
  • SS - linear
  • helical

13

LCMV (lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus)  Lassa fever encephalitis, spread by what animal?

  • viral family?
  • enveloped?
  • RNA structure?
  • Capside symmetry?

  • mice
  • Arenaviruses
  • Yes
  • SS - circular (2 segments)
  • Helical

14

California encephalitis, Sandfly/rift valley fever, crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever, Hantavirus-hemorrhagic fever, pneumonia

  • viral family?
  • enveloped?
  • RNA structure?
  • Capside symmetry?

  • Bunyviruses
  • Yes
  • SS - circular (3 segment)
  • helical

15

HDv is a defective virus that requires HBV co-infection

  • viral family?
  • enveloped?
  • RNA structure?
  • Capside symmetry?

  • Delta virus
  • Yes 
  • SS - circular
  • ?

16

Negative stranded viruses

  • must transcribe      strand to     
  • Virion brings its own                         
  • this includes:  (Always bring Polymerase or fail replication)

  • - to +
  • RNA-depedent RNA polymerase
  • Arenavirus, Bunyavirus, Paramyxovirus, Orthomyxovirus, Filovirus, Rhabdoviruses.

17

Segemented viruses

  • All are RNA viruses
  • They include (BOAR)

 

  • Bunyavirus
  • Orthomyxovirus (influenza)
  • Arenavirus
  • Reovirus

18

Picornavirus

  • Includes (PERCH)
  • RNA is translated into 1 large polypeptide that is cleaves by          into functional viral proteins
  • Can cause               except for 2
  • all are enteroviruses except?

  • Poliovirus, Enterovirus, Rhinovirus, Coxsachievirus, HAV
  • proteases
  • aspetic (viral) meningitis (except rhinovirus and HAV)
  • rhinovirus

19

  • A piconavirus, noneveloped RNA virus
  • Cause of common cold
  • >100 serologic types
  • Acid labile (destroyed by stomach acid)
    • therefore doesnot infect GI tract (unlike the other picornaviruses)

 

Rhinovirus

20

A flavivirus (also an arbovirus) transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes.  virus has a monkey or human resorvoir

Symptoms:  High fever, black vomitis, and jaundice

What is the cause?

Yellow fever virus

21

22

he most important global cause of infantile gastroenteritis, is a segmented dsRNA virus ( a reovirus)

Major cause of acute diarrhea in the US during winter, especially in day-care centers, kindergartens.

  • What is the cause?
  • What is the mechanism?

  • Rotavirus
  • Villous destruciton with atrophy
    • leads to dec absorption of Na and loss of K

CDC recommends routine vaccinationt of all infants

ROTAvirus-Right out the Anus!

23

  • Enveloped - ssRNA, viruses with 8 segments genome
  • contains          ( promotes viral entry) and           (promotes progeny virion release) antigens.
  • Patients at risk for              
  • Rapid genetic changes
  • Define organism

  • Orthomyxoviruses (influenza viruses)
  • Hemagglutinin  & neuraminidase
  • fatal bacterial superinfection

24

Reformulated vaccine (the flu shot) containing the viral strains most likely to appear during the flu seans

  • which one is more freq used?
  • which vaccine replicates in the nose but not in the lung, and how is it adminsitered?

  • Killed viral vaccine 
  • Live attenuated; intranasally

25

what causes pandemics, reassortment of viral genome, segments undergo high freq recombination, such as when human flu A virus recombines with swine flu A virus.

Genetic shift/antigentic shifts

Sudden shift is more deadly than gradual drift.

26

Causes epidemics.  Minor (changes bassed on random mutation)

Antigentic drift

Sudden shift is more deadly than gradual drift

27

Define virus and family and other name

fever, postauricular and other lymphadenopathy, arthralgias, and fine rash.  Causes mild disease in children but serious congenital disease (a ToRCHeS infection).  Congenital rubella findings include 'blueberry muffin' appearance, indicative of extramedullary hematopoieis

  • rubella, togavirus, 3 day german measles

28

  • Paramyxoviruses causes disease in children
    • parainfluenza (croup seal like barking cough)
    • mumps, measles, 
    • RSV (respiratory tract infeciton (bronchiolitis, pneumonia) in infants
  • All of these contain what
    • what is its purpose
  • what prevents pneuomia caused by RSV infection in premature infants

  • Surface F (fusion) protein
    • causes respiratory epithelial cells to fuse adn form multinucleated cells
  • Palivizumab
    • monoclonal antibody against F protein

29

  • Define the virus that

is a paramyxovirus that causes koplik spots (blue-white center on buccal mucosa), and descending maculopapular rash 

Cough, Coryza (irritation inside nose), conjunctivitis pink eye

  • What are some possible sequelae?
  • What is used to prevent severe exfoliative dermatitis in malnourished children?

  • Measles  virus (paramyxovirus)
  • Sequelae
    • SSPE (subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, occuring years later)
    • Encephalitis (1:20000)
    • giant cell pneumonia (rarely in immunosuppressed)
  • Vitamin A

30

Pt presents with parotisi (enlarged parotid glands) and orchitis (inflammation of testes) and aseptic meningitis

  • What is it?
  • What is the major complication?

  • Mumps virus
  • Orchitis/sterility (especially after puberty)

31

Pt presents with

  • bullet shaped virus
  • Negri bodies commonly found in             &         ?
  • This virus has a long incubation period (wks to months) before symptom onset.  
  • Progression of disease
    • fever, malaise--> agitation, photophobia, hydrophobia-->paralysis, coma --> death
  • Postexposure treatment is wound cleansing and                      &                         .
  • what is the mech?
  • more commonly from bat, raccoon, and skunk bites than from dogs in US!

  • Purkinje cells of cerebellum and hippocampal neurons
  • Vaccination +/- rabies immune globulin (expensive like crazy!)