Visual defects - clinical Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Visual defects - clinical Deck (23):
1

Symptoms of visual loss

- Blurred/out of focus
- Glare
- Distorted vision
- Things look pale
- Shadow
- Floater

2

Blurred vision

Out of focus/not sharp, no distortion, refractive problem (cornea, lens, shape of eye), macular problem

3

Glare

Difficulty seeing in bright light, corneal/lens problem (cataract)

4

Distorted vision

Things look wavy, jumbled up, lines not straight, kink, affects retina (wet macular degeneration, macular hole/pucker, retinal detachment)

5

Things look pale

Look darker/less colour
- Optic nerve disease (neuritis/compression)
- Retina (wet macular degeneration/central serous retinopathy)

6

Floater

Opacity in vitreous, vitreous syneresis/post vitreous detachment, vitreous haemorrhage

7

Cataracts symptoms

Blurred vision, glare, change in refraction, asymptomatic, gradual onset

8

Retina supply from

Blood - inner retina (diffusion from choroid)

Retinal pigment epithelium maintain environment of photoreceptors

9

Drusen

Reduced function of RPE

10

Drusen presentation

Yellow deposits under retina (lipids)

11

Treatment of cataracts

Phacoextraction with lens implant

12

Dry ARMD

Age-related macular degeneration, gradual

13

Dry ARMD signs

Drusen, RPE pigmentation/atrophy, decreased reading vision

14

Treatment of dry ARMD

Stop smoking, dark glasses protect from bright, dietary changes, low visual aids

15

Advantages of phacoextraction with lens implant

Vision could be improved near to normal, cataracts will deteriorate, performed under local anaesthetic, rapid rehabilitation

16

Disadvantages of phacoextraction with lens implant

Risk of serious complication > loss of vision (2%), recovery may be limited, fear of operation, eye may feel swollen and gritty after not painful, topical steroid for 2 weeks after

17

Causes of central retinal artery occlusion

- Embolic (carotid artery disease/valve disease)
- Giant cell arteritis (anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy)

18

Metamorphosia

Distorted vision - grid of straight lines appears wavy and parts of the grid may appear blank

19

Wet ARMD

Choroidal neovascular membrane, rapid loss of vision

20

Wet ARMD treatment

Intravitreal injection of antiVEGF (vascular endothelial growth facotr), visual loss can be reversed

21

Full thickness macular hole

Caused by natural movement of eyes only affects central vision > deteriorate

22

Advantage surgery for FTMH

Close hole, visual improvement variable, performed under local anaesthetic

23

Disadvantages surgery for FTMH

Risk of not closing (10%), serious complications (1%), cataracts