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Physical Diagnosis I Exam One > Vitals > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vitals Deck (83)
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1

What are the four vital signs?

Temperature, pulse, respiration, and blood pressure

2

What is the normal adult average temperature?

98.6 degrees Fahrenheit

3

What is the range for normal body temperature?

96-99.6 degrees Fahrenheit

4

When is normal body temperature the lowest?

During least activity (sleep)

5

What age group tends to have higher fevers: children or adults?

Children

6

What is the term to describe how most fevers vary during their course but don't fully return to normal until they resolve?

Remittent

7

What part of the nervous system regulates temperature?

Hypothalamus

8

What are the three typical phases of a fever?

1 Chills (shivering/rigors)
2 Hot stage (set point of fever)
3 Sweating (heat dissipates)

9

What occurs when a temperature rapidly rises from normal to fever level?

Febrile convulsions

10

What type of fever occurs, resolves, then recurs again in a few days?

Relapsing (uncommon in the U.S.)

11

What is the normal range for a fever?

Patient's normal to 105 degrees Fahrenheit

12

What is the range for hyperpyrexia?

Above 105 degrees Fahrenheit

13

When a patient exhibits hyperpyrexia, what condition can be assumed?

Damage to hypothalamus or heat stroke

14

Fevers are dangerous because of the possibility of what condition occurring?

Dehydration

15

What is the rate of water loss to the amount able to be absorbed by the body during exercise?

Lose 22 oz of water every 20 minutes
Absorb 6 oz every 20 minutes
(22 loss:6 gain)

16

What are the three phases of dehydration?

1 Heat cramps
2 Heat exhaustion
3 Heat stroke

17

If a patient presents with cold, clammy, sweaty skin and symptoms of dizziness, faintness, headache, or rapid, shallow breathing, what stage of dehydration would you suspect he/she is in?

Heat exhaustion

18

If a patient presents with hot dry skin and symptoms of dyspnea, arrhythmia, dilated pupils, possible seizures, coma, and even death, what stage of dehydration would you suspect he/she is in?

Heat stroke

19

If a patient presents with involuntary muscle hypertonicity of the legs and abdomen, what stage of dehydration would you suspect he/she is in?

Heat cramps

20

At what temperature do we see hyperthermia?

95 degrees Fahrenheit or less

21

How much blood is pumped into the arteries with every heartbeat that is felt with a pulse?

5 tablespoons

22

What three things are measured with the pulse?

Rate, rhythm, amplitude

23

What is the normal range and average resting pulse?

60-90 beats per minute (72 average)

24

What pulse range is indicative of bradycardia?

Less than 60 per minute

25

What pulse range is indicative of tachycardia?

More than 100 per minute

26

What is the physiologic tachycardia effect on pulse due to elevated temperature?

10 bp raise for every degree over 100

27

What is the cause for pathologic tachycardia?

Oxygen deficit (examples = anemia, hemorrhage, shock, or congestive heart failure)

28

What is the cause of physiologic tachycardia?

Normal response to exertion, anxiety, exercise, excitement or elevated temperature

29

What is the common heart beat irregularity that is more prominent in children where the heart rate speeds up with each inspiration and slows again with expiration?

Sinus arrhythmia

30

What is the common heart beat irregularity that involves disorganized electrical activity in the atria accompanied by a rapid, irregular ventricular response?

Atrial fibrillation