Flashcards in Vitals Deck (83)
What are the four vital signs?
Temperature, pulse, respiration, and blood pressure
What is the normal adult average temperature?
98.6 degrees Fahrenheit
What is the range for normal body temperature?
96-99.6 degrees Fahrenheit
When is normal body temperature the lowest?
During least activity (sleep)
What age group tends to have higher fevers: children or adults?
What is the term to describe how most fevers vary during their course but don't fully return to normal until they resolve?
What part of the nervous system regulates temperature?
What are the three typical phases of a fever?
1 Chills (shivering/rigors)
2 Hot stage (set point of fever)
3 Sweating (heat dissipates)
What occurs when a temperature rapidly rises from normal to fever level?
What type of fever occurs, resolves, then recurs again in a few days?
Relapsing (uncommon in the U.S.)
What is the normal range for a fever?
Patient's normal to 105 degrees Fahrenheit
What is the range for hyperpyrexia?
Above 105 degrees Fahrenheit
When a patient exhibits hyperpyrexia, what condition can be assumed?
Damage to hypothalamus or heat stroke
Fevers are dangerous because of the possibility of what condition occurring?
What is the rate of water loss to the amount able to be absorbed by the body during exercise?
Lose 22 oz of water every 20 minutes
Absorb 6 oz every 20 minutes
(22 loss:6 gain)
What are the three phases of dehydration?
1 Heat cramps
2 Heat exhaustion
3 Heat stroke
If a patient presents with cold, clammy, sweaty skin and symptoms of dizziness, faintness, headache, or rapid, shallow breathing, what stage of dehydration would you suspect he/she is in?
If a patient presents with hot dry skin and symptoms of dyspnea, arrhythmia, dilated pupils, possible seizures, coma, and even death, what stage of dehydration would you suspect he/she is in?
If a patient presents with involuntary muscle hypertonicity of the legs and abdomen, what stage of dehydration would you suspect he/she is in?
At what temperature do we see hyperthermia?
95 degrees Fahrenheit or less
How much blood is pumped into the arteries with every heartbeat that is felt with a pulse?
What three things are measured with the pulse?
Rate, rhythm, amplitude
What is the normal range and average resting pulse?
60-90 beats per minute (72 average)
What pulse range is indicative of bradycardia?
Less than 60 per minute
What pulse range is indicative of tachycardia?
More than 100 per minute
What is the physiologic tachycardia effect on pulse due to elevated temperature?
10 bp raise for every degree over 100
What is the cause for pathologic tachycardia?
Oxygen deficit (examples = anemia, hemorrhage, shock, or congestive heart failure)
What is the cause of physiologic tachycardia?
Normal response to exertion, anxiety, exercise, excitement or elevated temperature
What is the common heart beat irregularity that is more prominent in children where the heart rate speeds up with each inspiration and slows again with expiration?