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Flashcards in vitamins Deck (43):
1

what are vitamins

organic molecules essential to human metabolic and cellular function that cannot be produced within the body and must be obtained through external sources, often the diet

2

what are the fat soluble vitamins

A, D, E, K

3

what are the water soluble vitamins

B1, B2, B3,B5,B6, B7, B9, B12, C

4

what fat soluble vitamins have reported toxicity?

A and D

5

what water soluble vitamins have reported toxicity?

B3, B6, C

6

fat soluble vitamins characteristics

fatty acyl chains
ingested as esters
require cholesterol esterase for uptake
integrated into micelles and chylomicrons

7

water soluble characteristics

acute use
urinary excretion
little toxicity
B12 is stored for long periods
absorbed by Na contransporters
-except B9 and B12

8

Vitamin A

retinol, carotenoids

9

Vitamin B1

thiamine

10

Vitamin B2

riboflavin

11

Vitamin B3

niacin

12

Vitamin B5

pantothenic acid

13

Vitamin B6

pyridoxine

14

Vitamin B7

biotin

15

Vitamin B9

folic acid

16

Vitamin B12

cyanocobalamin

17

Vitamin C

ascorbic acid

18

Vitamin D

cholecalciferol

19

Vitamin E

tocopherols

20

Vitamin K

phylloquinone

21

Vitamin A disease or clinically relevant note
retinol

night blindness, dry skin
high doses to treat acne; teratogen when in doses greater than 3mg/d while pregnant

22

vitamin A is necessary for what?

vision

23

vitamin B1 disease and clinical notes
thiamine

Beriberi-neuronal wasting and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome-phycosis, severe short term memory loss, disorientation, confabulation
-chronic alcoholism and diabetes are associated with poor thiamine status

24

vitamin B1 thiamin is essential for what metabolic reason?

coenzyme for pyruvate dehydrogenase complex
TPP

25

Vitamin B2 riboflavin disease and clinical notes

-thyroid problems, edema of mouth and throat, hair loss, repro issues
- no real clinical note

26

Vitamin B2 riboflavin is needed for what in metabolism?

FAD in the CAC and complex II of ETC

27

Vitamin B3 niacin disease

causes pellagra: dermatitis, diarrhea, inflamed mucus and delusions

28

Vitamin B3 niacin is necessary for what in metabolism?

NAD+

29

Vitamin B5 pantothenic acid need in metabolism

major component of Coenzyme A synthesis

30

vitamin B6 pyridoxine diseases and clinical note

EEG abnormalities, depression and confusion, impaired immune
-may improve cognitive performance, has been shown to aide with morning sickness
-overdose alters neuronal conductivity

31

Vitamin B6 pyridoxine need in metabolism

forms PLP and PMP which function as coenzyme in transamination and single carbon transfer in AA metabolism

32

Vitamin B7 biotin deficiency symptoms

hallucinations, depression, and parethesia, anorexia, nausea, scaling around eyes, nose and mouth

33

vitamin B7 metabolic need

functions as cofactor for fatty acid syn and AA catabolism
acetyl-CoA carboxylase- makes acetyl CoA->malonyl CoA

34

Vitamin B9 folate or folic acid disease and clinical note

deficiency during pregnancy can lead to neural tube defects at birth, also megaloblastic anemia
-deficiency associated with poor diet, alcoholism, and malabsorptive disorders

35

daily intake dose for vitamin B9

400mcg/day, 600mcg/day if pregnant
do not take more than 1mg/day

36

vitamin B9 metabolic need

essential for AA metabolism
essential for methionine production

37

Vitamin B12 cobalamins clinical note

megaloblastic anemia associated with B12 deficiency and be mask by B9 without correcting neurological deficits leading to persistent nerve damage. thus taking more than 1mg of B9 is not recommended

38

Vitamin B12 metabolic need

functions as a cofactor in methionine synthesis and fatty acid synthesis.

39

vitamin B12 deficiency symptoms

depression, confusion, dementia, poor memory and irreversible nerve damage

40

Vitamin C disease and clinical note

scurvy
toxic due to oxalic crystal formation which leads to gout and renal failure
-often taken to treat common cold, does not reduce risk of getting cold but can reduce duration by 8%

41

Vitamin D cholecalciferol diseases

-rickets-bone softness and deformation due to improper internalization
-osteomalacia: bone weakness, bone pain, and muscle weakness

42

Vitamin E tocopherol diseases

function as antioxidant and protect against LDL
-disease: peripheral neuropathy, ataxia, skeletal myopahty, retinopathy, impaired immune response

43

vitamin K phylloquinone disease and clinical note

bleeding and hemorrhaging, reduced bone mineralization and osteoperosis
note: if given with anticoagulants, it can be deplete vitamin K dependent clotting factors