Vitamins and Minerals - Charts 37.3 and 37.4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Vitamins and Minerals - Charts 37.3 and 37.4 Deck (28):
1

What are Vitamins?

Vitamins are organic substances that are essential in very small amounts, no other substance can carry out their metabolic functions. Most animals must obtain all their vitamins from food.

2

What are Minerals?

Minerals are inorganic substances that are essential for growth and survival because no other substance can serve their metabolic functions.

3

Vitamin A1. Source2. Function3. Effects of Chronic Deficiency4. Effects of Extreme Excess

Fat-Soluble 1. Precursor comes from beta-carotene in yellow fruits, yellow or green leafy vegetables, also found in fortified milk, egg yolk, fish, liver.2. Used in synthesis of visual pigments, bone, teeth; maintains epithelia.3. Dry, scaly skin, lowered resistance to infections, night blindness, permanent blindness.4. Malformed fetuses, hair loss, changes in ski, liver and bone damage, bone pain.

4

Vitamin D1. Source2. Function3. Effects of Chronic Deficiency4. Effects of Extreme Excess

Fat-Soluble1. Inactive form made in skin, activated in liver, kidneys; in fatty fish, egg yolk, fortified milk products.2. Promotes bone growth and mineralization, enhances calcium absorption. 3. Bone deformities (rickets) in children, bone softening in adults.4. Retarded growth; kidney damage, calcium deposits in soft tissues.

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Vitamin E1. Source2. Function3. Effects of Chronic Deficiency4. Effects of Extreme Excess

Fat-Soluble1. Whole grains, dark green vegetables, vegetable oils.2. Counters effects of free radicals, helps maintain cell membranes, blocks breakdown of vitamins A and C in gut.3. Lysis of red blood cells, nerve damage.4. Muscle weakness, fatigue, headaches, nausea.

6

Vitamin K1. Source2. Function3. Effects of Chronic Deficiency4. Effects of Extreme Excess

Fat-Soluble1. Enterobacteria form most of it, also in green leafy vegetables, cabbage.2. Blood clotting, ATP formation via electron transport.3. Abnormal blood clotting; severe bleeding (haemorrhaging).4. Anemia; liver damage, and jaundice.

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Vitamin B1 (thiamin)1. Source2. Function3. Effects of Chronic Deficiency4. Effects of Extreme Excess

Water-Soluble1. Whole grains, green leafy vegetables, legumes, lean meats, eggs.2. Connective tissue formation, folate utilization, coenzyme action.3. Water retention in tissues, tingling sensations; heart changes, poor coordination.4. None reported from food, possible shock reaction from repeated injections.

8

Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)1. Source2. Function3. Effects of Chronic Deficiency4. Effects of Extreme Excess

Water-Soluble1. Whole grains, poultry, fish, egg white, milk.2. Coenzyme action.3. Skin lesions.4. None reported.

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Vitamin B3 (niacin)1. Source2. Function3. Effects of Chronic Deficiency4. Effects of Extreme Excess

Water-Soluble1. Green leafy vegetables, potatoes, peanuts, poultry, fish, pork, beef.2. Coenzyme action.3. Contributes to pellagra (damage to skin, gut, nervous system, ect.)4. Skin flushing, possible liver damage.

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Vitamin B61. Source2. Function3. Effects of Chronic Deficiency4. Effects of Extreme Excess

Water-Soluble1. Spinach, tomatoes, potatoes, meats.2. Coenzyme in amino acid metabolism.3. Skin, muscles, and nerve damage, anemia. 4. Impaired coordination, numbness in feet.

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(Vitamin) Pantothenic Acid1. Source2. Function3. Effects of Chronic Deficiency4. Effects of Extreme Excess

Water-Soluble1. In many foods (metas, yeast, egg yolk esp.)2. Coenzyme in glucose metabolism, fatty acid and steroid synthesis.3. Fatigue, tingling in hands, headaches, nausea.4. None reported; may cause diarrhea occasionally.

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(Vitamin) Folate (folic acid)1. Source2. Function3. Effects of Chronic Deficiency4. Effects of Extreme Excess

Water-Soluble1. Dark green vegetables, whole grains, yeast, lean meats; enterobacteria produce some folate.2. Coenzyme in nucleic acid and amino acid metabolism.3. A type of anemia, inflamed tongue, diarrhea; impaired growth, mental disorders.4. Masks vitamin B12 deficiency.

13

Vitamin B12 1. Source2. Function3. Effects of Chronic Deficiency4. Effects of Extreme Excess

Water-Soluble 1. Poultry, fish, red meat, dairy foods (not butter).2. Coenzyme in nucleix acid metabolism.3. A type of anemia, impaired nerve function.4. None reported.

14

(Vitamin) Biotin1. Source2. Function3. Effects of Chronic Deficiency4. Effects of Extreme Excess

Water-Soluble1. Legumes, egg yolk; colon bacteria produce some.2. Coenzyme in fat, glycogen formation and in amino acid metabolism. 3. Scaly skin (dermatitis); sore tongue, depression, anemia.4. None reported.

15

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) 1. Source2. Function3. Effects of Chronic Deficiency4. Effects of Extreme Excess

Water-Soluble1. Fruits and vegetables, especially citrus, berries, cantaloupe, cabbage, broccoli, green pepper.2. Collagen synthesis, possible inhibits effects of free radicals; structural role in bone, cartilage, and teeth; used in carbohydrate metabolism.3. Scurvy; poor wound healing; impaired immunity.4. Diarrhea, other digestive upset; may alter results of some diagnostic tests.

16

Calcium (Mineral)1. Source2. Function3. Effects of Chronic Deficiency4. Effects of Extreme Excess

1. Dairy products, dark green vegetables, dried legumes.2. Bone, tooth formation; blood clotting; neural and muscle action. 3. Stunted growth; possibly diminished bone mass (osteoporosis).4. Impaired absorption of other minerals; kidney stones in susceptible people.

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Chloride (Mineral)1. Source2. Function3. Effects of Chronic Deficiency4. Effects of Extreme Excess

1. Table salt (usually too much in diet).2. HCL formation in stomach, contributes to body's acid-base balance, neural action.3. Muscle cramps; impaired growth, poor appetite.4. Contributes to high blood pressure in certain people.

18

Copper (Mineral)1. Source2. Function3. Effects of Chronic Deficiency4. Effects of Extreme Excess

1. Nuts, legumes, seafood, drinking water.2. Used in synthesis of melanin, hemoglobin, and some transport chain components.3. Anemia, changes in bone and blood vessels.4. Nausea, liver damage.

19

Fluorine (Mineral)1. Source2. Function3. Effects of Chronic Deficiency4. Effects of Extreme Excess

1. Fluoridated water, tea, seafood.2. Bone, tooth maintenance.3. Tooth decay.4. Digestive upsets, mottled teeth and deformed skeleton in chronic cases.

20

Iodine (Mineral)1. Source2. Function3. Effects of Chronic Deficiency4. Effects of Extreme Excess

1. Marine fish, shellfish, iodized salt, dairy products.2. Thyroid hormone formation.3. Enlarged thyroid (goiter) with metabolic disorders.4. Toxic goiter.

21

Iron (Mineral)1. Source2. Function3. Effects of Chronic Deficiency4. Effects of Extreme Excess

1. Whole grains, green leafy vegetables, legumes, nuts, eggs, lean meat, molasses, dried fruit, shellfish.2. Formation of hemoglobin and cytochrome (transport chain component).3. Iron-deficiency anemia, impaired immune function.4. Liver damage, shock, heart failure.

22

Magnesium (Mineral)1. Source2. Function3. Effects of Chronic Deficiency4. Effects of Extreme Excess

1. Whole grains, legumes, nuts, dairy products. 2. Coenzyme role in ATP-ADP cycle, roles in muscle, nerve function. 3. Weak, sore muscles; impaired neural function.4. Impaired neural function.

23

Phosphorus (Mineral)1. Source2. Function3. Effects of Chronic Deficiency4. Effects of Extreme Excess

1. Whole grains, poultry, red meat.2. Component of bone, teeth, nucleic acid, ATP, phospholipids.3. Muscular weakness; loss of minerals from bone.4. Impaired absorption of minerals into bone.

24

Potassium (Mineral)1. Source2. Function3. Effects of Chronic Deficiency4. Effects of Extreme Excess

1. Diet alone provides ample amounts.2. Muscle and neural function; roles in protein synthesis and body's acid-base balance.3. Muscular weakness.4. Muscular weakness, paralysis, heart failure.

25

Sodium (Mineral)1. Source2. Function3. Effects of Chronic Deficiency4. Effects of Extreme Excess

1. Table salt; diet provides ample to excessive amounts.2. Key role in body's salt-water balance; roles in muscle and neural function.3. Muscle cramps.4. High blood pressure in susceptible people.

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Sulfur (Mineral)1. Source2. Function3. Effects of Chronic Deficiency4. Effects of Extreme Excess

1. Proteins in diet.2. Component of body proteins.3. None reported.4. None likely.

27

Zinc (Mineral)1. Source2. Function3. Effects of Chronic Deficiency4. Effects of Extreme Excess

1. Whole grains, legumes, nuts, meats, seafood.2. Component of digestive enzymes, roles in normal growth, wound healing, sperm formation, and taste and smell. 3. Impaired growth, scaly skin, impaired immune function.4. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, impaired immune function, and anemia.

28

What is a free radical and what reaction does it have?

An uncharged atom or group of atoms with an unpaired election that makes it highly reactive. When a free radical reacts with DNA or another molecule of life, it disrupts that molecule's structure and function.