Flashcards in Chapter 11 Deck (19):
What are Autosomes?
Chromosomes with the same length, shape, and centromere location.
True or False: Autosomes carry different genes in males and females.
False, autosomes carry the same genes in males and females.
All except two chromosomes are autosomes; what are these remaining two?
Two sex chromosomes makes up the last pair, the differences determine the individual's sex.
How many genes does the human Y chromosome carry?
307, but only one of them os the SRY (male determining) gene.
How many genes does the human X chromosome carry?
1,336 genes. Many of the genes deal with nonsexual traits.
What is a Karyotype?
The number and visual appearance of the chromosomes in the cell nuclei of an organism or species.
What are Duplications?
DNA sequences repeated two or more times. Some duplications cause neural problems and physical abnormalities.
What is a Deletion?
The loss of some portion of a chromosome, usually causing serious disorders/death. The lose of genes results in disruption of growth, development, and metabolism.
What is an Inversion?
Part of the sequence of DNA within the chromosome becomes oriented in the reverse direction, with no molecular loss. If it does not affect the gene region then it will not affect the health of the individual. It could affect fertility.
What is a Translocation?
When a chromosome breaks and the broken part gets attached to a different chromosome, or to a different part of the first one. It can affect fertility, nothing else if it does not affect the gene region.
What is it called when changed in chromosome number arise when one or more chromosome pairs do not separate during mitosis or meiosis.
Nondisjunction, it affects the chromosome number at fertilization.
What is it called when cells have too many or too few copies of a chromosome?
What does it mean for an animal to be a polyploid?
Their cells have three or more of each type of chromosome.
What is Down Syndrome?
When a person is born with three chromosome 21.
Inheritance patterns are often displayed as charts of genetic connections called ______.
What is a Genetic Abnormality?
A rate or uncommon version of a trait. Not usually life threatening.
What is a Genetic Disorder?
An inherited condition that sooner or later causes mild to severe medical problems.
True or False: A genetic disorder is characterized by a specific set of symptoms.
True, it is characterized by a syndrome.