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Flashcards in vitamins (fat and water soluble) Deck (21)
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1

Vitamin B-12 has what other name?

cobalamin

2

What are the funcitons of B12?

a;lsdjf

3

metabolism of B12 is super related to what other vitmain?

folate
*one carbon transfers
interactions essential for homocyseine to methioning, protein synthesis, nucleic acid synthesis

4

how is B12 absorbed?

1) cleave vitamin from dietary protein in stomach
2) requires intrinsic factor from stomach
3) cobalamin-IF absorbed in distal ileum
*most other B vitamins are absorbed earlier on in the GI
4) transport in circulation (transcobalamin II)
*also the enterohepatic circulation
large liver stores
excreted primarily via bile

5

Where is B12 found?

only in animal products
synthesized by soil bacteria
needs long term storage and supply
increase your requirements if you decrease absorption/reabsorption
vegas should take a supplement

6

where would you find B12 deficiency?

elderly people (gastric astrophy)
gastrectomy
Ileal resection - Crohns disease
breastfed infant of B12 deficient vegan mother
*sxs - macrocytic anemia and hypersegmented neutrophils (can't distinguish between B12 and folate)
*however, the effects of this is irreversible so treat with B12 first or at least make sure B12 is all good before you go the folate route
*depression, paresthesias, gait disturbances, burning tongue, dizziness

7

What is the other name for vitamin C

ascorbic acid

8

what are the functions of vitamin C?

reversible antioxidant
l;aksdlf;k
collagen synthesis
hydroxylation of proline and lysine

9

where is vitamin C found?

fruits
vegetables
potatoes
NOT in grains, meats, fats/oils, dairy

10

Does it make sense to take a megadose of vitamin C for a cold?

the absorption goes way down if you take it all at once
*recommend to split the dose to keep the absorption up
*intakes of 400-500mg/day, you won't increase your serum concentration really at all

11

what are the vitamin C deficiency findings?

scurvy
*;alkjsdl;fkjasdf

12

the trace elements/minerals that are important

iron, iodine, zinc, copper, selenium, MORE

13

what is bioavailability and why does it matter in micronutrients?

extent to which other dieteary constituats affect absorption of ;lakjsdflkj

14

what are the functions of iron?

50% in hemoglobin, 10% is myoglobin, 5% in various enzymes
*storage Fe - adults 300-1500mg
*oxygen transport
electron transport chain
enzymatic activation of O2 (oxidases, oxygenases)
CNS myelination
*dopamine synthesis (less than 1% of total body iron)

15

where does iron come from?

meats/flesh, liver (heme)
plant sources - ;alksdjf

16

what is phytic acid

storage of phosphorus in plants, anti-oxidant in gut
binds cations in gut
*we put this into livestock and poultry to decrease phosphate pollution
*high in grains and legumes (wheat)

17

why do we care about absorption affecting materials in Fe absorption?

mean has 30% absoption but kidney beans has 5% absorption
*it depends on your source whether or not you are deficient likely
*need to consider the context of the iron intake (bioavailabiltiy matters with iron)

18

where is the main point of regulation for iron homeostasis?

ABSORPTION - how much iron is let in is the most important factor in Fe homeostasis

19

where is the main point of regulation for iron homeostasis?

ABSORPTION - how much iron is let in is the most important factor in Fe homeostasis

20

Why is there decreased iron in the state of inflammation?

hepcidin is important - ;lkasdlfj

21

What are the iron stores?

ferritin, liver, p;laksjdf;lajs