Vitamins/Minerals/Metabolism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Vitamins/Minerals/Metabolism Deck (27)
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1

Vitamin A

Antioxidant, fat-soluble

Vision, bone growth, reproduction, cell functions, immune system

Plant sources: colorful fruits & veggies (carrots, peppers, broccoli, sweet potato, spinach, kale)

Animal sources: liver, whole milk 

Extra needed: kids, alcoholics, liver disease, CF, Crohn's

2

Vitamin C

antioxidant

skin, bones, CT, promotes healing, immunity, absorption of iron

Fruits/veggies: citrus red/green peppers, tomatoes, broccoli, greens

Extra needed in: pregnancy, smokers, post-surgery, burn pts

3

Vitamin D

fat-soluble; helps Ca absorbtion, nerve, muscle & immunity

can get it through skin (sunlight), diet, supplements

Foods: egg yolks, saltwater fish, liver, fortified foods

Extra needed: seniors, breastfed infants, dark skinned people, liver disease, CF, Crohn's, obese/gastric bypass pts.

4

Vitamin E

antioxidant; fat-soluble

immune system, metabolism

Foods: veggies oils, nuts, seeds, leafy greens, fortified cereals

Extra needed: liver disease, CF, Crohn's

supplements may be harmful to pts on anti-coags

5

Vitamin K

fat-soluble; healthy bones/tissues, blood clotting

newborns get Vit K shot when born

Foods: green veggies, dark berries

Caution: pts on blood thinners, need consistent amount

6

Thiamine

B1

H2O soluble

coenzyme in catabolism of sugars & AA; fermentation of ETOH

Foods: yeast, cereal, beans, nuts, meat

Extra needed: poor appetite, ulcerative colitis, diarrhea

Deficiency - beriberi & pellagra

7

Riboflavin

B2

H2O soluble

body growth, RBC production, helps release energy from CHOs 

Foods: dairy, eggs, leafy greens, lean meat, legumes, milk, nuts, fortified cereals

destroyed w/ light (milk cartons)

Deficiency: anemia, skin disorders, 

 

8

Niacin

H2O soluble

digestive system, skin, nerve function, converting food to energy

Foods: dairy, eggs, enriched bread/cereal, fish, lean meat, legumes, nuts, poultry

CVD - niacin may help high CHOL & TRIs

deficiency: pellagra (delusions)

large doses: high BGs, liver damage, peptic ulcers, skin rash

9

Pantothenic Acid

B5

Essential for growth, help metabolism, role in production of hormones & chol

Foods: avocado, leafy greens, eggs, lentils, milk, 

10

Pyridoxine

B6

synthesis of serotonin & norepinephrine, protein metabolism, maintanence of homocysteine (AA in blood), gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, Hbg formation

Absorned in jejunum

Foods: fish, beef liver, oran meats, starchy veggies

deficiencies: microcytic anemia, weakened immune function

11

Biotin

B7

essential for growth, metabolism

foods: cereal, chocolate, egg yolk, elgumes, milk, nuts, organ meats

12

Cobalamin

B12

nervous system, make blood cells

Foods: meat, shellfish, cheese & eggs

deficiency: GI surgery, SI problems, megaloblastic anemia, proton-pump inhibitors, metformin

13

Folic Acid

B-Vit

makes healthy new cells, prevents neural tube defects in fetus

Foods: leafy greens, fruits, dried beans, peas, nuts, enriched breads, etc.

Need extra: epilepsy, DM2, IBD, Pregnant, liver disease, dialysis, celiac, alcoholics

14

Calcium

mineral; helps bone & teeth, help muscles & bv contract & expand; secrete hormones & enzymes

Foods: dairy, leafy greens

deficiency: osteoporosis

1000-1300 mg/day

don't take w/ anticonvulsants, levothroxine, antiobiotics, prednisone

15

Phosphorus

formation of bone & teeth; body's utilization of CHO, Fat & PRO for growth; production of ATP; contraction of muscles

Foods: meat, milk, refined flour

700 mg/day

dialysis pts need to watch

 

16

Magnesium

needed to maintain normal muscle & nerve function, heart rhythm, immune system, strong bones, regulate BG, BP, energy met & protein synthesis.

Absorbed in SI & excreted through kidneys

Foods: green veggies, legumes, unrefined grains

protective against CVD & immune dysfunction

deficiency: can cause seizures, arrhythmia, low levels of Ca in blood & low K+

17

Sodium

Na - control BP, blood volume, muscles & nerves to work properly

Foods: milk, convience foods, etc.

too much: HTN, CHF, cirrohis, kidney disease

Need: <2300 mg/day

Heart issues <1500 mg/day

18

Potassium

K+, build proteins, breakdown & use CHO, build muscle, maintain normal body growth, control electrical activity of heart, control acid-base balance

Foods: all meats, fish, veggies (broccoli, peas, tomatoes, potatoes), bananas, citrus, kiwi, prunes, milk, yogurt

Dialysis - low K+

Hypo - diuretics for HTN, HF, laxatives, diarrhea, kidney

Hyper - arrythmia from poor kidney function, ACE & ARBs, sepsis/infection

Needs: 3g-4.7g/day

19

Chloride

need to keep proper balance of body fluids, digestive juices

Foods: table salt, veggies

20

Iron

make Hgb (in RBC), myoglobin (in muscles) - help carry & store O2 in body

Foods: red meats

Deficiency: anemia

hemochromatosis - disease w/ build up of iron in body - can become toxic

21

Stomach

three tasks:

  1. stores swallowed food
  2. mixes food w/ stomach acids
  3. sends mixture to SI

Where digestion of PRO begins

22

Pancreas

  1. Endocrine - produces several hormones into the blood: insulin, glucagon (raises BG levels), & somatostatin (growth hormone inhibiting hormone)
  2. Endocrine - produces digestive enzymes & an alkaline fluid & secretes them into the SI: trypsin, pancreatic lipase & amylase

23

Duodenum

1st part of the SI, located b/n the stomach & jejunum

food is mixed w/ bile from gallbladder & digestive juices from pancreas

absorption of vitamins, minerals & other nutrients begins here

24

Small Intestine (SI)

longest part of digestive system (20 ft)

connects stomach to large intestine (colon)

it does most of the digesting; absorbing vitamins, minerals, CHO, PRO & Fats

three parts:

duodenum

ileum

jejunum

25

Colon

large intestine (LI)

four major parts:

ascending colon; transverse colon, descending colon & sigmoid colon

removes H2O, salt & some fat soluble vits forming stool

billions of bacteria (flora) coat the colon 

26

Gallbladder

small pouch under the liver

stores bile produced by liver

squeezes stored bile into SI through a series of bile ducts

bile helps digest fats

not essential, can be removed.  Liver will take over the duties of the gallbladder

Gallstones (cholelithiasis)

27

Liver

largest organ inside the body

changes food into energy, cleans ETOH & poisons from blood, & makes bile (digests fats)

diseases of the liver:

Hepatitis A, B & C, cirrhosis, jaundice