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Flashcards in Viti 2: The Vine Deck (58)
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1

Family to which Vitis Vinifera belongs

Vitaceae (family of woody climbing plants)

2

Prompt buds

Buds that break in the same year as their formation

3

Latent buds

Buds that break in the spring in the spring that follows their formation

4

Transpiration

The process by which leaves evaporate water, in turn enabling the plant to suck up water from the soil

5

Petioles

Leaf stalks. Can be analysed to determine nutrient requirements of the vine.

6

Flowers

Grouped bunches called inflorescences and are hermaphroditic.

7

Budburst:

Carbohydrates stored in roots throughout winter return to the trunk and canes as sap to give nutrients.

8

Winter dormancy:

Leaves fall off and shoots lignify (harden and brown).

9

Coulure:

Poor set brought about by poor light levels.

10

Millerandage/hen and chicken:

Small berries with no seeds and big berries with seeds all on same bunch brought about by low temperatures.

11

Vieilles vignes in German:

alte Reben

12

Hybridisation between species:

Interspecific hybridisation

13

Vitis riparia

Wild on river banks in alluvial soil, central-eastern N America. Phylloxera resistant, grafts well, low in vigour, ripen early, but suffer chlorosis (iron deficiency) in chalky soils. Good for controlling vigour. Rootstocks tolerant of damp.

14

Vitis berlandieri

Found on chalky slopes in southern USA and Mexico. Vigorous, deep-rooted and resists chlorosis. Cuttings don't root well, so often hybridised with riparia/rupestris. High calcium tolerance.

15

Introduction of downy mildew in Europe from USA

1878

16

Name of downy mildew

Plasmopara viticola

17

PDO wines in Europe

Cannot be hybrid

18

Crosses occurring within same species (one variety with another):

Intraspecific vinifera crosses

19

Louis Bouschet - Aramon x Teinturier =

Petit Bouschet

20

Henri Bouschet (son) - Petit Bouschet x Grenache =

Alicante Bouschet (rich in anthocyanins in pulp and skin, deep red).

21

Group name for anthocyanin-rich black grapes:

Teinturiers

22

Hermann Müller (from Thurgau, Switzerland) in late C19th

Riesling x Madeleine Royale (table grape) = Müller Thurgau

23

Mass selection/sélection massale:

Marking out best plants from which to take cuttings. Best done in poor years and involves eliminating plants rather than actively selecting them.

24

Cloning:

Come from single parent and have same genetic identity. Propagated vegetatively. First carried out in 1876. Risks high yields and easy spread of disease.

25

Why are Vitis berlandieri and rotundifolia layered rather than rooted from cuttings?

They respond better to layering rather than rooting from cuttings.

26

Layering:

Only suitable for areas with no phylloxera risk. Famous example: Bollinger's Vieilles Vignes Françaises.

27

Cuttings:

Hardwood winter cuttings normally used. Taken in autumn/winter when carbohydrates are highest and is healthy. Softwood harder to propagate, but available all year round.

28

Length and treatment of cuttings:

30-45cm pieces. Stored at 5 degrees. Heat treatment at 50 degrees for 30 minutes and kills pests, phylloxera, nematodes and phytoplasmas.

29

Growing cuttings:

Plenty of water, as leaves grow faster than roots (mist propagation/propagating frame). Warmth (15-25 degrees) from below, if possible, to encourage roots. Loose, well-drained soil protected from vine weevils.

30

Benefits of grafting:

Resistance to phylloxera/nematodes, roots become better adapted to soil conditions (e.g. high lime content) and better control of vigour.